Apiculture Apiculture is the science of beekeeping. Humans have collected honey from wild bee hives for more than 8,000 years, as shown in Mesolithic rock paintings dating from 6000 B. C. E. By 2500 B. C. E. , Egyptians were keeping bees in artificial hives. Hives exploit the honeybees’ natural tendency to build nests in … Read more

Grading and Standardization of Agricultural Products

Grading and Standardization of Agricultural Products Standardization and grading are the first steps in the value-chains of an agricultural produce as it travels in a market channel to the consumer. Price of a produce has to be commensurate with quality, the assessment of which depends on a responsive system of grading and standardization. Hence, it … Read more

Water use efficiency in relation to crop production

Water use efficiency in relation to crop production Land and water scarcity are major constraints to the production of food required to meet the quantitative and qualitative shifts of the world’s demand in the mid-twenty-first century. Whereas land and water availability are constrained on a global scale, there are important regional and crop-specific differences that … Read more

Trends in Food production and consumption in India

Trends in Food production and consumption in India Production trends Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is the largest source of livelihoods in India. 70 percent of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood, with 82 percent of farmers being small and marginal. In 2017-18, total food grain production was estimated at … Read more

National Agricultural Research System

National Agricultural Research System India has built up a fairly advanced agricultural research system. The Indian NARS is one of the largest systems in the world. The effective functioning of this system, in close association with education and extension systems, has greatly contributed to the rapid growth of agriculture after independence. After independence, the research … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

 Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

Food Laws And Regulations

 Food laws and regulations Until recently, effectiveness of food control in the Indian domestic market was found to be severely undermined by the existence of multiple jurisdictions, and weaknesses in surveillance, monitoring and enforcement. Several of these food laws were enacted under different ministries in India that had their own rules and orders, … Read more

Conventional And Non Conventional Sources Of Energy

 Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy Main Sources of Energy: The sources of energy are of following types: 1. Conventional Sources of Energy: These sources of energy are also called non renewable sources. These sources of energy are in limited quantity except hydro-electric power.  (a) Coal and … Read more

Administered Prices

 ADMINISTERED PRICES INCLUDING MSP AND PROCUREMENT PRICES Historical context The emergence of agricultural Price Policy in India was in the backdrop of food scarcity and price fluctuations provoked by drought, floods and international prices for exports and imports. This policy in general was directed towards ensuring reasonable food prices for consumers by providing … Read more

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