Respiration Respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy … Read more

Reproduction And Growth

 Reproduction and growth – type of reproduction Living things grow and they reproduce. Growth is a way to generate the materials for reproduction. Reproduction is a way to make new organisms that can grow. Thus, the apparent “goal” of every organism is to fill the available world with its offspring, that is, with … Read more

Reflex Action

 Reflex action In the body of an animal two types of activities take place: voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary action happens according to the will of the individual while there is not any control of will over involuntary action. Involuntary action may again be divided into two categories. The action of first category is … Read more


 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in … Read more


 Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body. The fluids inside and surrounding cells are composed of water, electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. An electrolyte is a compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte, in contrast, does not dissociate into ions … Read more


 Nutrition Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials – food – required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods. Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:  Carbohydrates They provide us … Read more

Nervous System Of Human Being

 Nervous system of human being The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According … Read more

Food Bio Technology

 Food bio technology Biotechnology is defined in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e. “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to … Read more

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

 Factors affecting photosynthesis There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis and several corollary factors. The three main are:   Light irradiance and wavelength Carbon dioxide concentration Temperature. Total photosynthesis is limited by a range of environmental factors. These include the amount of light available, the amount of leaf area a plant has to … Read more

Excretory System

 Excretory System Introduction If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. Do you know why this … Read more

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