- Horticulture :
- The agrarian state of Andhra Pradesh is heading towards a value addition platform from the conventional production approach. ‘Horticulture’ sector has been recognized as an essential component for food and nutritional security in the State. Efforts are being made to make Andhra Pradesh maintain its supremacy in the production of Oilpalm, Papaya, Citrus and Chillies, Mango and Tomato. Micro irrigation through drip and sprinkler mechanisms have proved effective both in terms of cost and output. The government is implementing strategies to make Rayalaseema as a Horticulture hub.
- Under extension programme undertaken in a big way, it is targeted to cover one million farmers in next three years under Farmer Producer Organisations for Agriculture & Allied sectors in order to establish forward and backward linkages and to promote the products of Andhra Pradesh to global standards. It contributes about 8.18% of the State GVA and is moving towards value enhancement in addition to focus on production. The Government is committed to encourage horticulture and it is expected that value addition from this sub-sector will soon cross the agriculture share
- Wide range of agro-climatic conditions of Andhra Pradesh are conducive for growing a large variety of Horticultural crops, including, root and tuber crops, ornamental crops, plantation crops like coconut, cashew and cocoa etc. During the year 2016-17, the Government has set a target of 20% growth in output and to achieve this, there is need for new initiatives, new interventions and implementations with the support and coordination of farmers and entrepreneurs.
- Horticulture – the key growth driver in primary sector :
- The State Government has developed a comprehensive strategy for achieving sustainable and inclusive double digit economic growth to make the state of Andhra Pradesh amongst the three best states in India by 2022 and a developed state by 2029 on key social and economic indicators.
- The Government is committed to the farmer centric programmes and identified horticulture sector as one of the top priority sectors. This vision is sought to be realized through seven inter-related Missions and Primary Sector Mission is one among them consisting of agriculture and allied sectors. GVA from Horticulture Sector during 2016- 17 was Rs.34013 crores (constant price) with a growth rate of 17.00% over 2015-16. The returns from Horticulture per unit of land are higher as compared to Agriculture. Horticulture, as a climate resilient alternative involving less risk, assures higher income to farmers.
- In the context of global warming & climate change and increasing per capita income of middle class, this sector has more potential as food habits are changing and people are becoming more health conscious. During the year 2016-17 the area under Horticulture crops is 15.92 lakhs acres with a production of 268.57 lakh MTs. Andhra Pradesh stands at 1stposition in productivity for Chillies, Cocoa, Lime, Oil Palm, Papaya and Tomato, 2nd in Cashew, Mango and Sweet Orange in India. A.P. Ranks 1st in area and production of fruits and spices and 2nd in Micro Irrigation area coverage. Area and Production of Horticultural crops during 2016-17 and 2017-18
- Productivity of Horticulture Crops :
- Andhra Pradesh stands at 1st position in productivity for Chillies (5 MTs/Ha), Oil Palm (19 MTs/Ha), Papaya (100 MTs/ Ha) and Tomato(44MTs/Ha), 2nd in Cashew (0.9 MT/Ha), Mango (12 MTs/Ha) and Sweet Orange(20Mts/Ha) in India.
- AP Coconut trees record highest productivity:
- Andhra Pradesh stands at 4th position in coconut cultivation with an area of 261430 acres and production of 209144 no. of nuts in lakhs. The average productivity of coconut in the country is 4247 nuts/acre, where as the State stands at First position in productivity with 5482 nuts/acre. Best quality ball copra is produced in Andhra Pradesh.
- Oil Palm :
- only tree species with highest edible oil recovery Andhra Pradesh ranks 1st in area and production of Oil Palm in India. This is the only tree species that is 100% under contract farming with tie up of processing plants for extraction of oil and income from the tree is all round the year. In A.P. this crop is presently under cultivation in 3,91,562 acres with 14.82 lakh MTs production.
- Andhra Pradesh State is bestowed with two mighty river systems of Krishna and Godavari. The State has wide and varied vegetation types enriched by a variety of flora and fauna. Andhra Pradesh located strategically in the central region of the Indian sub-continent, has representatives of the magnificent Indian plant and animal life. Its varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamallas to the shores of Bay of Bengal supports varied ecotypes, which in turn support a rich diversity of flora & fauna.
- Packed with abundance of rich flora and fauna life, the forests in Andhra Pradesh make for highly rejuvenating getaways. Tourists often head to the forests near Andhra Pradesh to experience jungle safaris. The famed wildlife in Andhra Pradesh is mainly scattered across these forests. While the benefits from dense forests are numerous, the tangible benefits like Timber, Bamboo, Fuel wood, Fodder, Non-Timber Forest Products etc., are quantifiable. Intangible benefits like maintenance of ecological balance, conservation of soil and moisture, regulating the water flow, sequestering carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere etc., are not quantified but are of great signifiance.
- Forest cover has been recognized as critical for a living environment as it influences the quality and quantity of air and water. The role of forests as carbon sinks endows them added recognition as an important environmental factor. With the responsibility of management of forests vested with the State Forest administration, the Central interventions are directed essentially towards reinforcing the capacity of States to undertake the National Policy mandates towards conservation and sustainable use of resources. The core objective of forest sector development strategy is to enhance green cover by integrating it with livelihood opportunities.
- As per the forest records, the state ranks 9th in India having forest cover area of 36909.38 Sq. Kms which amounts to 23.04%. Of this forest area, the Very Dense Forest is 649.79 Sq. Kms the Moderate Dense Forest is 11792.18 Sq. Kms, Open Forest is 10931.01 Sq. Kms Scrub Forest is 9455.24. Kms Non-Forest is 3708.08 Sq. Kms and Water Bodies is 373.08 Sq. Kms.
- The Departmental Extraction of Timber, Fuel and Pulp Wood, Faggot Wood, Long Bamboo and Bamboo Industrial Cuts (BIC) from natural forests as well as plantations was introduced from the year 1976-77, after disbanding the previously existing contractor system.
- At present there is a moratorium on extraction of timber from natural forests except for bamboo from overlapping bamboo forests. The major activity comprises harvesting timber and poles from matured plantations of Teak, Eucalyptus, Casuarinas etc. and long bamboos and BIC from bamboo coupes as per prescriptions of the working plan of respective divisions. The physical targets and achievements of Departmental Extraction of Forest Produce of Timber, Fuel, Poles and Bamboos
- Forest products in the state include Red sander, Timber, Bamboo, Firewood & Charcoal etc. The income accrued from forestry sector in the State was Rs.18.92 crore in 2017- 18 (upto Nov, 2017).
Social Forestry :
- The State Government has launched a massive people’s movement involving public and farmers in a big way to increase tree cover outside reserve forests to improve environment and to provide gainful employment to thousands of unemployed youth. Public distribution of seedlings, raising community land plantations/ avenue/ shelterbelt plantations; and raising of institutional plantations have been done under Social Forestry programme.
- The Government has launched “Vanam-Manam” on 01.07.2017 witVana-mahostavam in Kondaveedu Forest Block at Obulanaidu Palem village of Guntur District. The tentative target of planting for 2017-18 under VanamManam is 25 crore by all stakeholders.
- The Vanam-Manam programme has two components viz. “Vanamahotsava”, a tree plantation programme and “Prakruthi Pilusthondi”, a programme for creating awareness and ensuring participation of various stakeholders. The Vanam–Manam Campaign has started on the 1st Saturday of July, 2017 and it is continued for 127 days. Every Saturday afternoon and 4th Saturday of each month were earmarked to reinforce environmental conservation efforts and to increase awareness on forest protection. The campaign ended with “Karthika Vana Samaaradhana” on 04-11-2017 at Nagaravanam Perecherla, Guntur.
- The department has raised 4850 ha of block plantation and 479 km of Avenue plantation as against the target of 4,739 ha. of block plantation and 650 km of Avenue plantation respectively for the year 2017-18. 158.99 lakh saplings have been utilised for planting in the forest areas and 418.49 lakh saplings have been utilised for distribution. Presently 54.11 lakh tall seedlings and 36.37 lakh fruit bearing species like Jama, Usiri, Neredu etc., are available in the year 2017-18 (upto December, 2017).
Forest Protection Schemes Intensification of Forest Management Scheme:
- The objectives of forest protection scheme include prevention and control of fi re, survey and maintenance of boundaries, preparation of working plans, development of infrastructure and protection of forests and wildlife. Under this scheme 1.74 lakh claims with an extent of 10.26 lakh acres are received. Of which 1.63 lakh claims with an extent of 9.81 lakh acres are surveyed. Remaining are under progress.
The APFDC has been raising Eucalyptus Clonal plantations and with 31963 Ha. it is the single largest grower among PSUs in India. There are proposals to raise another 1000-2000 Ha. in the next 3 to 4 years. Due to improved site preparation, use of quality planting material and management practices, optimum yields are obtained from the plantations.
Bamboo plantations are raised over an area of 2416 ha. The Corporation is intending to expand the Bamboo plantations over an area of 100 Ha in the next 3 to 4 years to ensure more supply of raw material per annum to the Paper Industries besides raw material to the artisans.
The Corporation is maintaining about 4,010 ha. of existing coffee plantations in the agency areas of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari Districts with intensive cultivation practices, by following scientifi c methods. These plantations are generating about 5.00 lakh mandays of employment to the tribals all-round the year
APFDC has 1.80 lakh Pepper standards in its Coffee Estates in the agency areas of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari Districts comprising of high yielding varieties like Panniyur-I, Purnima, Sreekara, Subhakara, Panchami, Panniyur-5. It is proposed to plant another 1.15 lakh standards with pepper in the next 5 years.
Cashew Plantations: The Corporation has got cashew plantations over an area of 5795 ha. along the coastal belt in Prakasam and Nellore districts and in the inlands of West Godavari and Chittoor districts. Presently, the older plantations are being replanted with high yielding Cashew varieties using scion banks.
CGPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for CGPCS Prelims and CGPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by CGPCS Notes are as follows:-