Ancient History


 The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami ", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ... Read more

Hindutva And Patriotism

 Hindutva Literally 'Hindutva' means a way of life or a state of mind that is based on the cultural and spiritual ethos based on the spiritual systems that evolved from India. Hindutva is a philosophy like Communism or Socialism. The difference is that, whereas communism and socialism are materialistic philosophies intended to secure economic welfare of individuals, Hindutva is a spiritual plus economic philosophy founded and developed from ancient times in India for securing all round happiness of all individuals irrespective of social levels of individuals. The focus in this philosophy be it the ruler or the ruled is ... Read more

Pandyan Contributions

 Economic contribution External trade was carried on between South India and Hellenistic kingdom of Egypt and Arabia as well as the Malay Archipelago. The author of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (75 A.D.) gives the most valuable information about the trade between India and the Roman Empire. He mentions the port of Naura (Cannanore) Tyndis (Tondi), Muzuris (Musiri, Cranganore), and Nelcynda as the leading ones on the west coast. Other ports of South India were Balita (Varkalai), Comari, Colchi, Puhar (Khaberis of Ptolemy), Saliyur, Poduca (Arikamedu) and Sopatma (Markanam). A landmark in the development of communications was the ... Read more

Solanki Of Gujrat

 The Solanki dynasty ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Kathiawar in India between 950-1300 CE. The kings of the dynasty used the self-designation Chaulukya, and are also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or as the Solanki Rajputs. The dynasty ended when Alauddin Khalji conquered Gujarat. Gujarat was a major centre of Indian Ocean trade, and their capital at Anhilwara (modern Patan, Gujarat) was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in 1000 CE. In 1026, the temple complex of Somnath in Gujarat was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. After 1243, the ... Read more

Pre Medival

 Harsha or Harshvardhana (590-647) ruled Northern India for over forty years. He was the son of Prabhakar Vardhan and younger brother of Rajyavardhan, king of Thaneshwar. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the Punjab, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo Gangetic plain. As a consequence to the coronation of Harshavardhana, dynasty of Thaneshwar and Kannauj amalgamated. Kannauj became a prominent city of North India and for centuries  its glory perpetuated, only comparable to Patliputra. It was the desire of every state to rule kannauj.  The Chinese traveler, Yhan-Chawang visited the country at the time of Harsha ... Read more

The Huna Invasion

 Facts related to Uttar Pradesh   In the beginning of the sixth century A.D. when the Gupta empire was disintegrating, they repeated their invasion under their ruler Toramana. Though there is no conclusive evidence that Toramana was a Huna yet, mostly he had been accepted so. This time the Hunas succeeded and occupied Kashmir, then Punjab, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Bhanu Gupta had to fight against Toramana. The Maukharis held the region of western Uttar Pradesh around Kanauj, had conquerred a part of Magadha. The Maukhri dynasty king of Kannauj Ishanverma defeated the Huns ... Read more

Socialist Approach And Total Revolution

 Socialist approach In simple language socialism can be regarded as a movement against the inequality existing in the present social order. It is a plan for a new social order based on justice, equality, free from exploitation of man by man, a co-operative commonwealth of mankind. Though socialists differ among themselves on a number of points, there are certain basic principles, on which every socialist agrees. These are – Socialism wants to establish the importance of the society over the individual. It wants to abolish competition. It wants to abolish private enterprise. It wants to establish a proper system ... Read more

Religious Sects

 : Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked the growth of a process of cultural synthesis. Thus, in an era of disintegration, religion played a positive part. The revival and growth of Hinduism led to increase the power and arrogance of Brahmanas. This resulted in a series of popular movements against brahmanical monopoly of the ... Read more

The Sakas

 Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Shakas had set up their Kshsatraps in Mathura. The brahmi inscription s of Mora(Mathura ) is associated with Sakas. conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60BCE. Some of their satraps were Hangamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula. The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta, as is attested by his own coins. Arta is stated to be brother ... Read more

The Chauhans

 Origins According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or 'fire sprung' clans who were created by the Gods in the anali kund or 'fountain of fire' on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs. Agnikula origin was perpetuated by Raso from the 16th century onwards. Chauhan gotracharya: Samved, Somvansh, Madhyandini Shakha, Gotracharya is used for marriage relationship and has not changed from time immemorial. Chauhans are termed as Agnivanshi khstriyas. History According to the Rajput bards the Chauhan is one ... Read more