Part II Public Administration

Federal Structure: Union-State relations

The Indian constitution provides for a federal framework with powers (legislative ,executive and financial) divided between the center and the states. However, there is no division of judicial power as the constitution has established an integrated judicial system to enforce both the central laws as well as state law. The Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between independent units, and the units of Indian federation cannot leave the federation.Thus the constitution contains elaborate provisions to regulate the various dimensions of the relations between the centre and the states. To understand the topic first we must understand the ... Read more

Panchayats and Municipalities

Panchayats and Municipalities Panchayats Village Panchayat In the structure of the Panchayati Raj, the Village Panchayat is the lowest unit. There is a Panchayat for each village or a group of villages in case the population of these villages happens to be too small. The Panchayat chiefly consists of representatives elected by the people of the village. Only the persons who are registered as voters and do not hold any office of profit under the government are eligible for election to the Panchayat. The persons convicted by the court for criminal offences are disqualified from election of the Panchayat. There ... Read more

Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration

Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline, new public administration There are five stages in the chronology of the evolution of Public Administration as a discipline; these stages are theoretically driven as encapsulated below: Stage 1: politics administration dichotomy (1887-1926) Stage 2: principles of administration (1927-1937) Stage 3: era of challenge (1938-1947) Stage 4: crises of identity (1948-1970) Stage 5: public policy perspective (1971 onwards) The first stage was the manifestation of Woodrow Wilson’s view of politics – administration dichotomy (difference between two things as they are completely opposite). This led to a spurt in the interest of its studies in ... Read more

Development Administration

Development is the end result of Public Administration. The paradigm of development is depending on the nature of government and its policies. It may be ideologically driven or ethically motivated. It strips off the orthodox structuralism of public administration as put forward by classical Administrative theorists and attempts to cater the emerging need of a given population upon which the process of administration is going to be taken place. Development Administration is an intellectual enterprise with which defined goals of development can be achieved. Welfare of people, increase in per capita income, empowerment of the marginalised if any, long term ... Read more


In ancient and medieval India, there was monarchical form of government and the general administration was run by people having near or distant relationship with the King instead of dedicated bureaucracy . But gradually the administration assumed complexities and this required specialist knowledge.The British rulers established a new form of administration analogous to their own administrative system. The purpose of British administration in India was to establish law and order and to collect revenue. Max Weber described bureaucracy as rational and the most efficient form of organisation. He described an ideal-type of bureaucracy as one characterized by: 1. Officials organised ... Read more

Concept of State and Sovereignty

Concept of State and Sovereignty The State is a social contract, a guarantee of social order in exchange for which the citizens agree to reduce their freedom.According to Carré de Malberg, one of France’s leading constitutional scholars, « the state is a community of men attached to a territory with an organization, from which results for the group engaged in relations with its members a supreme power of action and coercion.” More clearly, the state is the result of a population, a territory and a sovereignty. Population  First, the population consists of all the persons living in the territory of ... Read more

Democracy: Direct and Indirect

Democracy: Direct and Indirect Democracy in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as “rule of the majority”. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. Since the time of the ancient Greeks, both the theory and the practice of democracy have undergone profound changes, many of which have concerned the prevailing answers to questions 1 ... Read more

The doctrine of the separation of powers

The doctrine of the separation of powers finds its roots in the ancient world, where the concepts of governmental functions, and the theories of mixed and balanced government, were evolved. These were essential elements in the development of the doctrine of the separation of powers. Their transmission through medieval writings, to provide the basis of the ideas of constitutionalism In England, enabled the doctrine of the separation of powers to emerge as an alternative, but closely related, formulation of the proper articulation of the parts of government. The power to govern should be distributed between the Parliament, the Executive and ... Read more

Administrative Reforms

Why is Administrative Reforms needed? Technological change Advances in industrialisation Growth in the number and complexity of governmental activities Changes in social, political and economic spheres of life All above have created extraordinary strains on the traditional machinery of the government Obsolescence of institutions, roles, procedures and processes in the government What are ways through which Administrative Reforms are done? There are three forms Traditional Approach: let the problem arise and then place a competent person to solve it. Aka Management process Committee Process: appoint ad hoc committee. Like the Hoover Commission in US and ARC in India Setting up ... Read more

Right to information act 2005

Information sharing and transparency in government and Right to information act 2005 Transparency and accountability in administration as the sine qua non of participatory democracy, gained recognition as the new commitments of the state towards its citizens. It is considered imperative to enlist the support and participation of citizens in management of public services. Traditionally, participation in political and economic processes and the ability to make informed choices has been restricted to a small elite in India. Consultation on important policy matters, even when they directly concern the people was rarely the practice. Information-sharing being limited, the consultative process was ... Read more