Part III Environment

lndia’s threatened,endangered and endemic species

lndia’s threatened,endangered and endemic species India, a megadiverse country with only 2.4% of the world’s land area, accounts for 7-8% of all recorded species, including over 45,000 species of plants and 91,000 species of animals. The country’s diverse physical features and climatic conditions have resulted in a variety of ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, desert, coastal and marine ecosystems which harbour and sustain high biodiversity and contribute to human well-being.  Four of 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots: The Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the North-East, and the Nicobar Islands, can be found in India. Threatened species Threatened species are any ... Read more

Topological and Nontopological conservation

Topological & Non-Topological Conservation   Conservation – shape and structure of networks of interacting organisms in ecological systems In-Situ Conservation   Protect whole ecosystem at all levels to protect threatened species (save entire forest to save tiger) Hot Spots – High endemism & high species richness (in India – Western Ghats (Agasthyamalai hills, Silent valley, Amambalam reserve) & Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma (NE India) – angiosperms, Sundalands (Nicobar Is.) & Himalaya – (dicot species) – cover less than 2% area with 44% species – if conserved extinction with decline by 30% 4 factors that determine hotspots Degree of endemism Degree of ... Read more

Biodiversity-Definition, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation

Biodiversity-Definition, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, different species of organisms with the whole range of their variants and genes adapted to different climates, environments along with their interactions and processes. Types of biodiversity There are three interrelated hierarchical levels of biodiversity namely, genetic diversity, species diversity and community or ecosystem diversity. ... Read more

Population explosion and Family Welfare Programme

India was the first nation to launched a family planning programme in 1952. Though the birth rate started decreasing, it was accompanied by a sharp decrease in death rate, leading to an overall increase in population.The early concept of population policy covered both mortality and fertility and did not exclusively focus on fertility. There was also a recognition of the need to improve the quality of life of the people by lowering the burden of disease or morbidity, promoting universal primary education and eradicating illiteracy, exploitation and poverty. The current high population growth rate is due to: (1) the large ... Read more

Solid waste managment – Urban and Industrial solid waste management: reason, effect and control

Solid Waste Management; Types of Solid waste Management; Factors affecting Solid Waste Generation Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is basic public services which every citizen should have access to, both for health and hygiene, and for ensuring a good quality of living. Sanitation here refers to toilet facilities, whereas solid waste management refers to the management collection and disposal of solid waste (as opposed to liquid waste). The image of a city as being clean and free of waste, impacts its desirability for doing business by entrepreneurs and for future residents to live. Municipalities in India are responsible for ... Read more

Disaster Management

Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not only results in loss to thousands of lives, but also in terms of loss in private, community and public assets. While substantial scientific and material progress has been made, the loss of lives and property due to disasters has not decreased. Government of India has now brought ... Read more

Flood- CGPCS Mains

Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather system in semi-arid and arid regions of the tropics, which covers more than one-third of the land surface and is vulnerable to drought and desertification. A drought is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. Drought is not a purely ... Read more

Biodiversity: concept, hotspots, threats to biodiversity

Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Basically biodiversity is the total number of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. It includes (i) genetic diversity, (ii) species diversity and (iii) ecosystem diversity. Plants and animals constitute only a small component of biodiversity. A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. Endemic species are those species that are found  in a certain limited ... Read more

Human role in pollution control, Environment and human health; Effects of pollutants on animals and plants; urbanisation and industrial development.

Human role in pollution control The enhanced pace of developmental activities and rapid urbanization have resulted in stress on natural resources and quality of life. The trend of increasing pollution in various environmental media is evident from the deteriorating air and water quality, higher noise levels, increasing vehicular emission etc. Realising the urgent need for arresting the trend, Both Central and State Governments have adopted policy for Abatement of Pollution which provides for several mechanisms in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures to prevent and abate pollution. Further, realizing that conventional pollution control approach by treatment ... Read more

Human and wild animal struggle

Man-animal conflicts are common in various parts of the country. Incidents of man-animal conflict are reported from States/Union Territories of the country. In India, wild elephants probably kill far more people than tiger, leopard or lion. But, surprisingly, human conflict involving leopard draws great amount of public attention compared to other animals. Other carnivores – tigers, lions and wolves which have been known for causing a large number of human deaths in the past, are now mostly restricted in range and their impact is not as widespread as that of the leopard. The Government  supplements the financial resources available with the States/ ... Read more