Saftre – Existentialism

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre is one of the most important philosophers of all time. Despite his work garnering considerable flak over the years, his theories on existentialism and freedom cement his place among the most influential Western philosophers of the 20th-century and beyond.   Jean-Paul Sartre believed that human beings live in constant anguish, not solely because … Read more

Bradley – Idealism

Bradley’s theory that relational judgments that appear to refer to a number of identifiable and discriminable individuals actually presuppose a single underlying reality gets confirmation from his logical analysis of a kind of judgment in which this reality is introduced directly. Bradley’s definition of judgment introduces “ideal content.”  What is “ideal content” and how is … Read more

Descaftes – method of doubt, I think therefore I am

“Cogito, ergo sum” (Latin: “I am thinking, therefore I exist,” or traditionally “I think, therefore I am”) is a philosophical phrase by René Descartes, and it is a translation of Descartes’ original French statement: “Je pense, donc je suis,” which occurs in his Discourse on Method (1637). The interpretation of this phrase has been subject to numerous philosophical debates. The phrase expresses … Read more

Berkeley – esse est percipii

Irish philosopher George Berkeley believed that Locke’s Essay did not carry the principles of empiricism far enough. Philosophers like Descartes and Locke tried to forestall problems of perceptual illusion by distinguishing between material objects and the ideas by means of which we perceive them. (perceiver—–ideas—–material objects) But the representationalist approach can provide no reliable account of the connection between ideas and the objects they are supposed to represent. The results of … Read more

Locke –epistemology

John Locke belongs to the epistemological school of thought called Empiricism. Empiricism is a reaction to Rationalism which holds that reason, (in some sense), is the only road to genuine knowledge. The three notable rationalists are Rene Descartes, Wilhelm Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. These rationalist philosophers have tried to find a completely certain foundation for … Read more

Saint Anselm Ontological argument for the existence of God

Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world—e.g., from reason alone. In other words, ontological arguments are arguments from what are typically alleged to be none but analytic, a priori and necessary premises to the conclusion that God exists. … Read more