Origin of Aryans

  The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as Dasa or Dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of Sambara … Read more

Indus Valley Civilization

  Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in south Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 i.e. for 800 years. But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before … Read more

The Cholas: Maritime activities in Sourth-east Asian counturies. Chola administration, art & architecture.

The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya. Aditya helped his overlord the Pallava king Aparajita against the Pandyas but soon defeated him and annexed the whole … Read more

The Kushanas : Kanishka : Extent of empire, His religious policy; Development of Art, Architecture and Letters during the Kushana period

The Kushanas: Short introduction In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This … Read more

Growth of Communalism

Definition Communalism is the belief that because a group of people follow a particular religion they have, as a result, common secular, that is, social, political and economic interests. Second stage: Secular interests of followers of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the followers of another religion Third stage: The interests … Read more

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12) Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput states Granted sardeshmukhi to … Read more

Muslim League and hindu communalism

Muslim League 1906 by Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka, and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk It made no critique of colonialism, supported the partition of Bengal and demanded special safeguards for the Muslims in government services. ML’s political activities were directed not against the foreign rulers but against the Hindus and the INC. Their activities were not … Read more

Modern Indian history (from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present)- significant events, personalities and issues

India in the Eighteenth  CenturyBahadur Shah 1 (1707-12) Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput … Read more

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