Education in Human Resource Development, a mean Universal/Equal Elementary Education. Higher Education and Technical Education. Quality of Vocational Education

Education has been accepted as one major agency of socialization, and teachers and educational institutions as socializing agents. In describing education as an instrument of social change, three things are important: the agents of change, the content of change, and the social background of those who are sought to be changed, i.e. students. Educational institutions under the control of different cultural groups reflect the values of those groups which support and control education. In this situation, teachers Impart specific values, aspirations and to the children.

Social reformers, who were educated emphasized values like removal of caste restrictions, equality of women, doing away with social evil social customs and practices, voice in the governance of the country, establishing democratic institutions and so on. They, thus, wanted to teach liberal philosophy through education for changing society. In other words they regarded education as a flame or light of knowledge which dispelled the darkness of ignorance. The use of education for spreading the values of modernization came to be emphasized from the 1960s and 1970s onwards. Highly productive economies, distributive justice, people‟s participation in decision-making bodies, adoption of scientific technology in industry, agriculture and other occupations and professions were accepted as goals for modernizing the Indian society. And these goals were to be achieved through liberal education. Thus, modernization was not accepted as a philosophy or a movement based on rational values system but as a process that was to be confined only to economic field but was to be achieved in social, political, cultural and religious fields too. Education was sought to be utilized as channel for the spread of modernity.
According to the sociological perspective, education does not arise in response of the individual needs of the individual, but it arises out of the needs of the society of which the individual is a member1. The educational system of any society is related to its total social system. It is a sub system performing certain functions for the on-going social system. The goals and needs of the total social system get reflected in the functions it lays down for educational system and the form in which it structures it to fulfill those functions. In a static society, the main function of the educational system is to transmit the cultural heritage to the new generations. But in a changing society, these keep on changing from generation to generation and the educational system in such a society must not only transmit the cultural heritage, but also aid in preparing the young for adjustment to any changes in them that may have occurred or are likely to occur in future.

Thus, the relationship between educational system and society is mutual; sometimes the society influences changes in educational system and at other times the educational system influences changes in the society.

Education of Women :-

The National Policy on Education, 1986 also laid emphasis on education for attaining women‟s equality which will foster the development of new values. The strategies proposed are: encouraging educational institutions to take up active programmes to further women‟s development removal of women‟s illiteracy, removing obstacles inhibiting their access to elementary education, and pursuing policy of non-discrimination to eliminate sex stereotyping in vocational, technical and professional courses.

Education of SCs, STs. And OBCs

Education is directly related to the development of an individual and the community. It is the most important single factor for economic development as well as social emancipation. For the weaker sections of society, education has a special significance because for a number of centuries, their illiteracy and social backwardness have been used for their harassment, humiliation and economic exploitation.

Education and Human resource Development

Education shapes our present actions, our future plans and our past history which also develops in the future . Education is a very crucial to guide anyone to reach their goals through any success with an effort along , and the chance is very high. Example if you compare a person with masters to a person with only a high school diploma salary is totally different and there is huge gap amount between it. Educations helps you to better understand the world and with that being said education plays big role in human development and indeed it is a great to resource us.

Now a days education is very important ,without education the life of a person is just useless .He cannot do any work ,moreover today we cannot easily get a job if we are not educated. It teaches us the basic principles of life without it a person is useless. Education is perfection.
Higher education institutions themselves play a key role in equipping young people with the workforce skills needed by business. But these needs change quickly and often learning institutions are slow to respond. In this regard, stronger links between universities, businesses, trade unions and other stakeholders can help reshape course offerings to stay closely in line with evolving demands for specific skills. Co-operation can also bring other benefits favouring the investment environment, such as fostering an environment conducive to innovation and the quick diffusion of new knowledge.

Education is an effective and pervasive phenomenon for all round individual development and social transformation. This alone can sustain culture and civilization. A balanced development of mind and body in harmony with the spirit is the key to the enrichment of human personality and an outcome of value–based education, which must in the ultimate analysis help humanity to transcend to a higher level of consciousness. Our children must from their infancy be taught the dignity of labour.  Thus, the true meaning of education is harmonious development of head, heart and hand i.e., enlightenment of mind, compassion and dignity of labour. Moral and spiritual training is an essential part of education. If education is to help us to meet the moral challenge of the age and play its part in the life of the community, it should be liberating and life giving. It must give a basic meaning to one’s existence and equip us with the ability to overcome spiritual inertia and foster spiritual sensitivity. Temples of learning should produce men and women who will move together to develop common ideals and purposes, love each other and co-exist to create common wealth.

Education is not injection or injunction. It is not indoctrination of views and ideas or just an imposition of one’s views upon others. In short, education should not be an infliction, because the moment it becomes an infliction, the consequence is indiscipline amongst learners. A vast responsibility rests on our educational institutions and those who guide their destinies.  They need to be alert and should not wander from the right path even when passion convulses the multitude and blinds many amongst those whose duty is to set an example to others. If these are the ideals and objectives of education, how can we achieve these in the existing scenario of education which is in a state of anarchy and chaotic condition at all levels – primary to higher education. Educational system in India today is in a critical state – resistant to change and in danger of becoming irrelevant.

Thus, it needs a drastic reconstruction – almost revamping. The greatest challenge the world is facing today is the crisis of confidence and character, mental and moral decay and break down of rich traditions.  The root cause of all these is fear, hatred, greed, prejudice, intolerance and violence.  Therefore, efforts need to be made to eliminate these divisive forces, which is possible only by value-based education that involves harmonious development of the body, mind and spirit.  True knowledge consists of self understanding and self-control. Non-violence seems to be the highest form of knowledge. If education has to serve the humanity and defuse human suffering.

it must teach and train us to respect each other (universal brotherhood), love each other (universal love), practice compassion and uphold the dignity of all lives. Then only one will have peace. In a world which is primarily split between a few haves and majority of have-nots, tensions, diversities, self-centered vision, violence, terrorism and consumerism are creating a dreadful scenario of a bleeding world and a blood splattered humanity. In this chaotic atmosphere, value–based education is the only hope for synthesizing the moral fabric of an individual and generating a culture of peace in the society. Education must aim at the development of moral, spiritual and ethical values and we should seek them in our own heritage as well as in progressive cultures and civilizations. It should be such that Indians do not lose sight of their rich heritage – their thought must be rooted in the ideals set forth in the great writings and works of our sages, poets and philosophers. The noble goals and high values set forth in our precious culture must be adhered to. It has been emphasized time and again that conscious efforts should be made for the development of social, moral and spiritual values with the help of ethical teachings of the great religious teachers.

Character and Personality Development

Teachers can play a vital role in this regard. A teacher must succeed in conveying the larger ideals of service to the community, virtues of tolerance and respect for all faiths, importance of character, integrity and discipline and the value of humanism to his pupil. The later should also be made aware of our heritage and culture. They should develop a mature attitude towards religion. Acquaintance with prayers of different religions and hymns and songs of various faiths may also help young minds to recognize the intrinsic purity, beauty and practical usefulness of different religious thoughts. A UNESCO report on education for the 21st century entitled Learning. The Treasure Within also pleads for an education which is ‘rooted in culture and committed to progress’. Developing a harmonious and integrated personality would just not be possible if the system does not inculcate values embedded in the culture, heritage and traditions. Indian heritage, culture and values need to be thoroughly studied, analyzed and incorporated comprehensively in the educational system right from the pre-primary stage to higher education.

Injection of information into young minds has been taking place on a massive scale, but character and personality development has not received the attention it deserves. Creation of the right environment which helps and encourages young minds to resolve personal and moral issues independently is of utmost importance. Although it is not an easy task but it needs to be done at all costs.  Since character of people may decide the destiny of a nation, the educational system should develop character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and sportsmanship, and ideals of selfless service.  Emphasis should be laid on the study of the life of great sons of the soil whose ideas and ideals have moved the world, because such a practice may provide an insight to the younger generation for character development and spiritual sensitivity.

Skill development is the focus area of the government policy. It is central to accessing employment in the formal sector and enhancing productivity in the informal economy for reducing poverty and risk of underemployment.
The National Policy on Skill Development aims to train about 104.62 million people afresh and additional 460 million are to be reskilled, up-skilled and skilled by
Considering that majority of these labour force would be self or casual employed, the challenge is to how to improve the skill levels of these workforce. These categories cut across various target groups or vulnerable sections of the society. The groups are not mutually exclusive and there are overlaps because the workers in the self-employed category are a heterogeneous lot while the casual employed may be intermittently employed and in different unskilled works.

Main Objectives are:-

(i) educate and equip potential and early stage entrepreneurs across India

(ii) connect entrepreneurs to peers, mentors and incubators

(iii) support entrepreneurs through Entrepreneurship Hubs (E-Hubs)

(iv) catalyse a culture shift to encourage entrepreneurship

(v) encourage entrepreneurship among the under-represented groups

(vi) promote entrepreneurship amongst women

(vii) improve ease of doing business

(viii) improve access to finance and

(ix) foster social entrepreneurship and grassroots innovations

The National Council of Higher Education Resources (NCHER) is the nation’s oldest and largest higher education finance trade association. NCHER’s membership includes state, nonprofit, and for-profit higher education service organizations, including lenders, servicers, guaranty agencies, collection agencies, financial literacy providers, and schools, interested and involved in increasing college access and success. It assists its members in shaping policies governing federal and private student loan and state grant programs on behalf of students, parents, borrowers, and families.

NCHER represents its members on public policy initiatives within the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, and brings together the higher education community to strengthen all federal and private student loan and state grant programs through its ongoing involvement with Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the Federal Communications Commission, and other federal agencies, associations, and organizations engaged in student financing and policy.

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous organisation set up in 1961 by the Government of India to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on policies and programmes for qualitative improvement in school education. The major objectives of NCERT and its constituent units are to: undertake, promote and coordinate research in areas related to school education; prepare and publish model textbooks, supplementary material, newsletters, journals and develops educational kits, multimedia digital materials, etc. organise pre-service and in-service training of teachers; develop and disseminate innovative educational techniques and practices;collaborate and network with state educational departments, universities, NGOs and other educational institutions; act as a clearing house for ideas and information in matters related to school education; and act as a nodal agency for achieving the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education. In addition to research, development, training, extension, publication and dissemination activities, NCERT is an implementation agency for bilateral cultural exchange programmes with other countries in the field of school education. The NCERT also interacts and works in collaboration with the international organisations, visiting foreign delegations and offers various training facilities to educational personnel from developing countries.

The National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), (Deemed to be University) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, is a premier organization dealing with capacity building and research in planning and management of education not only in India but also in South Asia.

The UGC was established in November 1956 at Delhi as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India. In order to ensure effective region-wise coverage throughout the country, the UGC has decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore.


Main issues of Education in India

1. Lack of infrastructure-Approximately 95.2 per cent of schools are not yet compliant with the complete set of RTE infrastructure indicators according to survey conducted in 2010.They lacks drinking water facilities, a functional common toilet, and do not have separate toilets for girls.

2. Number of boards causes non uniformity of curriculum throughout India so maintenance of quality standard is quite difficult.

3. Poor global ranking of institutes
Only 4 universities are featured in first 400 .This is largely because of high faculty-student ratio and lack of research capacity

4. System of education
Education is information based rather than knowledge based. The whole focus is on cramming information rather than understanding it and analyzing it.

5. Gap between education provided and industry required education
Industry faces a problem to find suitable employee as education provided is not suitable for directly working in industry so before that a company is required to spend large amount on providing training for employee.

6. Gender issues
Traditional Indian society suffers from many kind of discrimination so there are many hurdles in education of unprivileged sections of society like women, SC, ST and minority

7. Costly higher education
Very minimal amount of subsidy is provided for higher education so if student seeks to get chances of higher education still he misses out because of lack of economical resources

8. Inadequate government Funding
The demand for financial resources far exceeds the supply. Very small amount is available for innovative programs and ideas.

Issues with Universalization of Education
Universalization of Elementary Education is Constitutional directive. Education is every body’s birth-right and it is binding on any government to provide facilities for education for children who are born and reach the school-going age.
It was stipulated to achieve Universalization within 10 years from the introduction of Constitution and that is by 1960. But it is now more than three decades after the scheduled time. The issues are as follows :
(1) Faulty Policy of Government:
The constitutional directive is that states shall endeavour to provide free and compulsory education to all children until they complete the age of 14 years. But it is a matter of regret that the prescribed goal has not been reached as yet. The main cause for this is that the policy of Government was based on idealism.
(2) Political Difficulties:
Education is the basis of democracy. It is necessary to educate the citizens in order to make democracy a success. But so far the Government of India has not been able to devote their full attention towards education.
Main reason is that since the attainment of Independence, Government had to face the problems of food, of inimical neighbours, the problem of Kashmir, the problem of linguistic states etc. Those problems still exist and these problems have all along forced to allocate so much money that Government has not been able to devote their due attention for elementary education.
(3) Faulty Administration of Education:
In most of the states the responsibility of universal primary education is on the authorities of Blocks, Municipalities and Educational Districts. The progress of expansion of primary education gets slow because of the indifference and incapability of these institutions.
(4) Dearth of Money:
Inadequacy of money is a serious problem that confronts primary schools. Income of the local institutions responsible for primary education is so much limited that they are totally incapable of meeting the expenditure of compulsory education.
To meet the requirements of compulsory basis education it was estimated that an annual expenditure of Rs.269.5 crores will be required. But in the First Five Year Plan the allocation was Rs. 93 crores and this allocation was reduced to Rs.89 crores in the Second Plan
(5) Dearth of Trained Teachers:
There is shortage of trained teachers to make Elementary Education Universal and compulsory. Nowadays, the young teachers do not wish to work in rural areas. But the fact remains that majority of Primary Schools are in rural areas. The chief reason of non-availability of suitable teachers is that teaching work is not attractive for many persons, since the salary of primary teachers is hopelessly low.
The condition of Scheduled areas is still more miserable. The hilly and impassable jungle areas with very poor communication and transport facilities fail to attract the present day luxury-loving young men. Teachers should be provided with proper residence in the villages of their work. The question of Women teachers is very much special.
(6) Establishment and School Buildings:
Even the Third and Fourth All India Educational Surveys indicate that even now there are lakhs of villages and habitations without schools. There are nearly 4 lakhs schoolless villages in India which are to be given schools. It is not that easy to provide necessary funds for setting up such a large number of schools with buildings and other equipments.
(7) Unsuitable Curriculum:
The curriculum for primary schools is narrow and unsuitable to the local needs. The curriculum should be interesting for the children for its continuance. Learning by work should replace the emphasis on monotonous bookish knowledge. Education of craft should be given in the primary schools in accordance with the local needs and requirements. But the schemes of craft education in the primary schools should not of highly expensive ones.
(8) Wastage and Stagnation:
It is another major problem and great obstacle for universalization of Elementary Education. Out of every 100 students enrolled in class – I more than half leave schools by Class IV, only 32 pupils reach class V and only 26 reach class VIII. This is due to the lack of educational atmosphere, undesirable environment, lack of devoted teachers, poor economic condition of parents, absence of proper equipment etc.
(9) Natural Obstacles:
Natural barriers are the great obstacles in the way of expansion of compulsory education. The village and small habitations in areas of Himalayan regions, Kashmir, Garhwal, Almora with less population are situated in distances apart.
(10) Social Evils:
Social evils like superstition, illiteracy faith in ancient conventions and customs, child marriages, untouchability, pardah system etc. create innumerable obstacle in the expansion of compulsory primary education. Still man; persons get their sons and daughters married at a very minor age against the Child Marriage Prohibition Act and deprive these school-going children of the fruits of education.
(11) Language Problem:
1961 Census reports about 826 languages and 1652 dialects in the country. The Constitution of India, 1950 mentions 14 languages, which can be made medium of education. Compulsory education has not been fully introduced among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and denotified tribes in the country. This is due to the hindrances of languages as medium of education.
Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an important element of the nation’s education initiative. In order for Vocational Education to play its part effectively in the changing national context and for India to enjoy the fruits of the demographic dividend, there is an urgent need to redefine the critical elements of imparting vocational education and training to make them flexible, contemporary, relevant, inclusive and creative. The Government is well aware of the important role of Vocational education and has already taken a number of important initiatives in this area.
Problem Areas Vocational Education and Training System

Following are the problems in Vocational Education System in India
1. There is a high dropout rate at Secondary level. There are 220 million children who go to school in India. Of these only around 12% students reach university. A large part of the 18-24 years age group in India has never been able to reach college. Comparing India to countries with similar income levels – India does not under perform in primary education but has a comparative deficit in secondary education.
2. Vocational Education is presently offered at Grade 11, 12th – however students reaching this Grade aspire for higher education. Since the present system does not allow vertical mobility, skills obtained are lost. Enrollment in 11th & 12th Grade of vocational education is only 3% of students at upper secondary level. About 6800 schools enroll 400,000 students in vocational education schemes utilizing only 40% of the available student capacity in these schools.
3. International experience suggests that what employers mostly want are young workers with strong basic academic skills and not just vocational skills. The present system does not emphasize general academic skills. The relative wages of workers with secondary education are increasing.

4. Private & Industry Participation is lacking. There are no incentives for private players to enter the field of vocational education.
5. Present regulations are very rigid. In-Service Training is required but not prevalent today. There is no opportunity for continuous skill up-gradation.
6. There is a lack of experienced and qualified teachers to train students on vocational skills. In foreign countries Bachelors of Vocational Education (BVE) is often a mandatory qualification for teachers. However, in India no specific qualifications are being imparted for Vocational Education teachers.
7. Vocationalization at all levels has not been successful. Poor quality of training is not in line with industry needs.
8. There is no definite path for vocational students to move from one level / sector to another level / sector. Mobility is not defined and hence students do not have a clear path in vocational education.
9. No clear policy or system of vocational education leading to certification / degrees presently available for the unorganized / informal sector. No Credit System has been formulated for the same. Over 90% of employment in India is in the Informal sector. JSS offers 255 types of vocational courses to 1.5 million people, Community Polytechnics train about 450,000 people within communities annually and NIOS offers 85 courses through 700 providers. None of these programs have been rigorously evaluated, till date.
10. Expansion of vocational sector is happening without consideration for present problems.

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