Civilizations have always flourished near sources of water. Since time immemorial,reservoirs are being constructed for domestic, drinking and irrigation needs. There is a large variationin monsoon pattern. Therefore, storage of water is a prime need of Chhattisgarh. The history of waterstorage in reservoirs in the state goes back to the Kalchuri dynasty of 12th century. Vallabhsagar ofKotagth and khadga reservoirs of Ratanpur are examples of this age-old tradition of preservation andstorage of water.
About 59,900 MCM of water drains into Ganga, Godawari, Mahanadi, Narmada andBramhani rivers from 137 thousand square kilometers geographical area of Chhattisgarh. Excludingthe use by neighboring states, only 41,700 MCM of surface water can be utilized in the state. Atpresent only 22% of surface water is being used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purpose.Similarly 13,678 MCM of ground water is available, of which 20% has so far been harnessed.
About 80% population of the state is rural and mainly dependent on agriculture. Theaverage rain fall of the state is 1300 mm and entire state falls under rice-agro-climate zone.Variability in monsoon directly affects agriculture crops, mainly paddy. In the circumstances moreirrigation facility has become a primary requirement for the state.
Irrigation in Chhattisgarh: Present Status
The gross sown area and net sown area of the state are 5.683 Million Hectare. And4.710 Million Hectare respectively. Irrigation potential of 1.328 Million Hectare was created from thegovernment sources till the formation of the new state of Chhattisgarh ( 1st November 2000) whichwas only 22.94% of gross sown area. It has now reached 1.809 Million Hectare which is 31.83% of grosssown area.
Irrigation in Chhattisgarh :Targets and Achievements
During 11th five year plan (2007-2012) additional irrigation potential of 481000 Hectare has been created up to March 2011.In addition to plan funds, the works are being executed from other budgetary provisionalso like loan from NABARD, Employment Guarantee Schemes (NREGA) drought prone areas etc.to increase the irrigation facilities.
RIDF Programme (NABARD) –
Under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) 416 schemes from Phase-IIto Phase-XVII have been taken up. The designed irrigation potential for these schemes is 221166 Hectare.
Tandula Canal Lining, Mata Sutiapat Project, KharkharaMohadipat Project and Mand Diversion aresome of the main projects which have been completed.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) –
Under accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) 2 Major Project (MahandiReservoir Project and HasdeoBango Project) and 147 Minor Irrigation Schemes have beencompleted which created 143030 Hectareof Irrigation Potential. 03 Majar Projects (Kelo Project,Kharang and Maniyri Canal Lining) two medium projects (Kosarteda and Sutiyapat) and 127 MinorIrrigation Schemes are under construction. Apart from these proposal 02 medium projects(GhumariyaNalla Barrage &KarraNalla Barrage) and 52 Nos Minor Irrigation Schemes have beensubmitted to Government of India for sanction under AIBP.
Schemes Under Construction –
There are four major, 6 medium and 412 minor schemes which are under constructionlike HasdeoBango Project (Major), Sondur Project (Major), Kosarteda Project (Medium), KarraNalla Barrage (Medium). These schemes will especially cater to the requirement of tribal and droughtprone areas.
Chhattisgarh Irrigation Development Project (ADB assisted) –
Increase in productivity by the use of improved irrigation methods, better watermanagement and modern agricultural methods to increase the irrigation area and raising income toreduce poverty are main objectives of this project.
Renovation and rehabilitation of 123 minor and 24 medium schemes strengthening andintensive training of Water Users Association (WUA), capacity building of department staff andfarmers for improvement in agricultural techniques are the main components of this project.
Estimated cost of this 7 year project is Rs. 306.00 crore. The work of 91 Scheme worth Rs. 78.79crore is completed. The work of 76 schemes worth Rs. 79.80 in under progress, on completion of 147schemes, 176750 Hac. irrigation potential can be recovered.
National Hydrology Project Phase-II (World Bank Assisted) –
Planning and design of water resources development, decision support and design aidby the use of data collection are main features of this world Bank Assosited “National HydrologyProject Phase-II”. To provide information about the availability and quality of surface and groundwater to different institutions and users is also special purpose of the project. Total estimated cost ofthe project was Rs. 21.51 crores. The latest estimated cost is Rs. 10.27 crores.
Steps to increase irrigation sources in Chhattisgarh:
Construction of Anicuts –
In the state of Chhattisgarh, there were ponds in almost every small habitation. Besidesfulfilling the local needs, these ponds were maintaining the natural balance of ground water in almostthe whole of the state. These ponds lost their existence with time and excessive exploitation of groundwater. As result water table plummeted. To overcome this imbalance, the Government ofChhattisgarh has prepared an ambitious project of creation alternate water bodies by constructinganicuts and stop-dams across various rivers and rivulets in the state. Under this project 595 anicutsand stop-dams have been identified across river Mahanadi, Shivnath, Jonk and other perennial riversand rivulets in the “rain-shade” region. This will raise the water table and will be very useful to localpopulace. The estimated cost of these anicuts and stop-dams is Rs. 2322.76 crore. Water will beavailable for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial uses from these anicuts. At present 154anicuts costing to Rs. 412.91 crore has been completed and 129 aniucts costing to Rs. 901.54 croreare under construction.
Requirement of irrigation water has increased manifold with the development of newtechniques in the field of agriculture. With view of optimum use of available water, Commend Area.
Development Programme was launched by Government of India for major and medium irrigationprojects. Construction of field channels, Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM), Training offarmers etc. are being executed under this programme. Following two Commend area DevelopmentAuthorities have been Constituted in the state;
- In year 2011-12 25630 Hectarecommand area in Mahanadi, command area Raipur andHasdeoAyacut Development Bilaspur up to 2/2012 has been developed.
- Thus, Water Resources Department has contributed in the overall development of the stateby creating irrigation potential, providing water for drinking and industrial purpose