Minerals in Chattisgarh
Minerals in Chattisgarh–Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country’s total cement produce. It has the highest output of coal in the country with second highest reserves. Chattisgarh is third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, Dolomite and Bauxite are abundant. It is the only Tin -ore producing state in India. Other commercially extracted Minerals in Chattisgarh include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds.
The Minerals in Chattisgarh resources have immense potential for large investments in mining, setting of mineral based industries and generating employment. Chhattisgarh nestles atop the world’s largest kimberlite area. Eight blocks have been demarcated for diamond exploration.
Iron ore deposits of Chhattisgarh contains high grade Heamitite ores .These rocks are entirely spread from North to South about 370 km in length that are extending from Bailadilla to Rajhara in southwestern Chhattisgarh occupying Dantewara, Bastar, Kanker, Narainpur, Rajnandgaon, Durg and Kawardha districts.
Bailadilla iron ore deposits (Bastar dist.) located in southern part of the range are world-class and being mined from the leased area to National Mineral Development Corporation, Ltd. (NMDC). Iron ore of Dalli-Rajhara (durg Dist.) located in the central parts of the range are captive mines of Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP).
Recently an iron ore bearing area is discovered in Kabirdham district and known as Eklama iron ore complex. This area is expected to yield high-grade hematitic iron ore in substantial quantity and support iron & steel units.
At a few places, small deposits (including isolated patches) may be related to other geological phenomenon are also known, which may not be economical for large establishment mine production. However, they can be used for sponge iron units.
Chhattisgarh mainly comprises metal (B & C) and refractory grade (A) bauxite, located in Surguja, Korba, Jashpur, Kanker, Bastar and Kabirdham districts. Total estimated reserves of all grades are of the tune of 148 million tonnes.
Brief information of known bauxite bearing areas is as follows:
- Manipat- Mainpat occupying about 470 km2 area, which is situated in the southeastern part of the Surguja Bauxite is widely developed in the form of pockets and lenses within extensively developed laterite over the Deccan basaltic plateau.
- Jamirapat- Samripat and Jamirapat forming irregular plateaus occupying about 322km2 and 112km2 area respectively are situated in the eastern part of the Surguja Bauxite is widely developed in the form of pockets and lenses within extensive laterite over the Deccan basaltic plateau.
- Pandarpat- Pandrapat forms an irregular shaped plateau of about 500 km2 in the western part of Jashpur These plateaus are capped by laterite, over the Deccan basaltic flows containing Bauxite in the form of pockets and lenses of various dimensions.
- Keshkal Area- Bauxite is developed in the form of pockets and lenses on small plateaus of varying dimensions in Keshkal area. Bauxite of this area belongs to A and B grade and may be considered as refractory grade. It is situated in Kanker District.
- Kabirdham District – In the district, Bauxite is known in and around villages Bodai Daldali, Keshmarda, Rabda, Mundadadar and Samsetta. A total reserves of 6.12 million tones of metal grade bauxite is expected from the area. The area is leased out to BALCO.
- Bastar District- A small bauxite pocket has been discovered by DGM in Asna – Tarapur area of Bastar district. The area is a few kms. away from Jagdalpur 1.5 million tones of bauxite has been estimated from the area.
Limestone and Dolomite are the carbonate rocks that are mainly used for cement manufacture and metallurgical purposes with other allied uses of calcinations, flux, refractory bricks, dimension stones etc. based on the grade. These sedimentary rock are precipitated in identical environment to form widespread and continuous deposits.
Limestone comprises of high calcium carbonate, while Dolomite is a double carbonate with higher concentrations of magnesium carbonate (>19% MgO) and calcium carbonate (20~35% CaO).
Limestone and dolomite deposits are known in the State located in Raigarh, Janjgir-Champa, Kabirdham, Bilaspur, Raipur, Durg, Rajnandgaon districts forming part of Chhattisgarh basin and in Jagdalpur district within Indravati basin and in Dantewara district in Sukma basin.
Total estimated deposits of all grades of limestone are of the tune of about 9038 million tones and estimated reserves of dolomite are of the tune of 847 million tones as per Indian Bureau of Mines .
- The state has 16% of the total coal deposits of India.
- 44483 million tonnes coal has been estimated in 12 coalfields of the State located in Raigarh, Surguja, Koriya and Korba districts.
- The state ranks 2nd in coal production by contributing over 18% to the total national production.
- Most of the coal deposits are of power grade coal. NTPC & CSEB in Korba are the major producer of thermal power and new a plant of NTPC has been started in Seepat, Bilaspur.
- Potential for more power generation units exist in the State. New capacities of 10,000 MW are expected to materialize.
Note– more details on Coal deposits have been provided in notes on energy resources of Chattisgarh.
Chhattisgarh is the only tin producing State in India. Tin ore is known as cassiterite, which was reported in Dantewara district. Cassiterite bearing pegmatites are reportedly rich in collumbite and tantalite, which are ore of rare metals niobium and tantalum, respectively.
Major Tin ore producing areas are
- Tongpal Area
- Katekalyan Area
- Padapur-Bacheli Area
Corundum is a rock-forming mineral that is found in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. It is an aluminum oxide with a chemical composition of Al2O3 and a hexagonal crystal structure.
The mineral is widely known for its extreme hardness and for the fact that it is sometimes found as beautiful transparent crystals in many different colors.
A gemstone-quality specimen of corundum with a deep red color is known as a “ruby.” A gemstone-quality corundum with a blue color is called a “sapphire.” Colorless corundum is known as “white sapphire.” Corundum of any other color is known as “fancy sapphire.”
In Chhattisgarh corundum occurs in Bhopalpatnam and Sukma areas of Dantewara/Bijapur distrticts. Minor occurrences are also reported from Deobhog area of Raipur district. Total 48 tonne of corundum has been estimated in the State.
Major areas are
Kuchnoor – Kuchnoor is situated 2 km. NW of Bhopalpatnam. The host rock of corundum in this area is biotite granite gneisses. The corundum occurrence in the area is restricted to only lateral extension.
Primary and placer both type of corundum reported in the village Ulloor. Placer corundum is encountered in Pedakonta nala. Primary corundum found at the depth of 3.85 m. in biotite granite gneiss.
Dampaya area –
In this area, pieces of corundum were recovered from nala section. Corundum is pinkish yellow, translucent, hexagonal barrel shaped. Country rock of the area is granite gneiss. It comes under forest area.
The corundum recovered is insitu i.e. from biotite granite gneisses. The corundum is pinkish violet in colour and characterised by basal pinacoid prism and striations. Corundum is translucent and can be placed in semiprecious stone category.
Chikudapalli – The area is situated 5 km. due NE of Bhopalpatnam. The blue corundum (Sapphire variety) was recovered from pits upper soil zone.
Yapla – The corundum is recovered from Gorla nala section near village Yapla. The corundum is yellowish and pink in colour. The country rock of the area is granite gneisss.
Sonakukanar, Sukma area- Corundum has been reported around villages Sonakukanar and Nagaras. Here corundum occurs within fuchiste schist in disseminated form.
Apart from these bulk minerals, there are number of other available Minerals in Chattisgarh. Some important one’s are described here –
Incidences of diamond in the rivers of the State and discovery of diamondiferous kimberlite in Mainpur area of Raipur district have attracted global attention. So far six kimberlites in Mainpur area and two kimberlite in Tokapal area have been discovered. Eight blocks have been demarcated based on structural controls to host kimberlites in Chhattisgarh. Potentially 3 diamondiferous kimberlites pipes have been identified in Behradih and Payalikhand villages of Raipur district. The State has emerged as a hotspot for potential diamond mining with all major mining companies engaged in reconnaissance operations.
Other Gem Stones
A rare gem mineral like Alexandrite is found in the State. Other gemstones like Garnet, Beryl, Rosy quartz, amethyst etc are also reported. Based on the minerals strength of the State, Gems and Jewellery Park is planned near Raipur.
Multicolored and texturally different granites are widely distributed in the State. Limestone, dolomite of attractive colour and design are extensively available in the State. Quartzite, sandstone and shales are also widely exposed which can be suitable as dimension stone. Export oriented cutting & polishing units are working in the State and prospects for many more exist.
Potentially gold bearing rocks are available in Raipur and Mahasamund districts. Placer gold panning is widely recorded from Jashpur, Kanker, Mahasamund and Bastar districts. ~3 tonnes of gold reserves are estimated in the State. Global mining companies like ACC Rio Tinto and Geomysore Services Pvt. Ltd., etc. are engaged in reconnaissance & prospecting operations for gold deposits in the State.
Potential base metals like copper, lead indications are known from Rajnandgaon, Mahasamund and Dantewara districts. These metals can be used in electric wires, batteries, manufacture of pigments, alloys etc.
Other minerals like clays, quartzite, fluorite, andalucite, kyanite, sillimanite, talc, soapstone, steatite, marble, silica sand, etc. are also reported from various part of the States.
Directorate of Geology and Mining
Directorate of Geology and Mining, Chhattisgarh is the State agency engaged in exploration of the mineral resources of Minerals in Chattisgarh. It has dedicated and skilled, teams of geoscientists, chemists, surveyors and drillers, who are engaged in various qualitative & quantitative aspects of mineral investigation in the State. The Directorate has been instrumental in locating important mineral deposits in various part of the State notably the diamondiferous kimberlite in Mainpur, gold in Sonakhan, iron ore in Kawardha District.
The Directorate of Geology and Mining has been committed to discharge the following functions:-
- Mineral Exploration
- Mineral Administration
Mineral Exploration –
Under this, the directorate caries out geological survey of the mineralized areas and delineate the potential zone for mineral exploration. Such potential zones are prospected by pitting/trenching and drilling. Geochemical, Geophysical, Petrological and Remote Sensing Techniques are utilized for the geological survey of mineralized zones to prove the quantity and quality of the mineral present in the area to evaluate their industrial potentiality.
Mineral Administration –
It is an important aspect being executed through mining Officers/Assistant M.O. posted in all the district head quarters in the Collectorate. They receive applications for various mineral concessions, process them within stipulated time and grant the leases to the applicant. Apart from this they also assess and realize the royalty on the minerals produce. Strict check on illegal extraction of Minerals in Chattisgarh, pilferage of mineral revenue, implementation of rules and regulations by the lessee are being carried out by departmental MO/AMO’s through mining inspectors of the concerned districts. The reconnaissance permit granted by Govt. Is also monitored by this wing.