In this energy-driven world, shift from heavy carbon-based fossil fuels to low carbon fuels (like natural gas) and Renewable Energy (RE) like Solar, Wind, Hydro, Nuclear, etc. would be instrumental in achieving our decarbonisation goals.
The key issue lies in the mode of energy storage and transporting in a clean way. There are two ways we can do this – electricity or hydrogen. Zero carbon electricity is generated directly from the RE generation pathways like solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, etc. and it can be transported through wires and stored in batteries. Green hydrogen must be first generated by electrolysis using RE so there is no CO2 emission in the whole process. It can be transported and stored as high-pressure gas or as a cryogenic liquid. While transport of electricity is cheaper than transporting hydrogen, hydrogen is a cheaper option for big energy storage compared to battery.
The future of hydrogen will be determined by policy decisions, relative costs and technical performance, across each potential application as fuel or process gas. The success of the Electrolyzer technology, which is still in its infancy, will play a key role in reducing the cost to make green hydrogen and how easily it can be deployed across multiple sectors of the economy.
The project pipeline for “green” hydrogen, produced using renewable electricity is expanding rapidly. Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) of RE in electricity sector has been successfully used by the government to bring about a step jump in increase on RE production, the scale of production in turn has helped to bring down costs. Similar strategy of mandating use of green hydrogen for industrial use in refineries, fertilizers, glass, steel annealing will help to achieve lower cost of green hydrogen. The good news for hydrogen is that there have been rapid technology advances which will help to reduce cost and improve reliability of hydrogen production.CGPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for CGPCS Prelims and CGPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by CGPCS Notes are as follows:-