(A)National investment fund
The cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on 27th January, 2005 had approved the constitution of a National Investment Fund (NIF). The Purpose of the fund was to receive disinvestment proceeds of central public sector enterprises and to invest the same to generate earnings without depleting the corpus. The earnings of the Fund were to be used for selected Central social welfare Schemes. This fund was kept outside the consolidated fund of India.
(B)Non-tariff trade barriers
Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) are trade barriers that restrict imports but are not in the usual form of a tariff. Some common examples of NTB’s are anti-dumping measures and countervailing duties, sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, quotas, Import Licensing requirements, Minimum import price limits, Embargoes, Standards disparities, Administrative fees which, although they are called “non-tariff” barriers, have the effect of tariffs once they are enacted. Their use has risen sharply after the WTO rules led to a very significant reduction in tariff use.
(C) Participatory notes or P-notes
Participatory Notes commonly known as P-Notes are instruments issued by registered foreign institutional investors (FII) to overseas investors, who wish to invest in the Indian stock markets without registering themselves with the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India – SEBI. SEBI permitted foreign institutional investors to register and participate in the Indian stock market in 1992. SEBI was not happy with P-Notes because it is not possible to know who owns the underlying securities and hedge funds acting through PNs might therefore cause volatility in the Indian markets. P Notes may also be used by terrorist organizations as well.CGPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for CGPCS Prelims and CGPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by CGPCS Notes are as follows:-