Frequent inundation of agricultural land and human settlement, particularly in Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (flooding rivers), coastal areas of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat (cyclone) and Punjab, Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and Haryana (flash floods) have serious consequences on the national economy and society. Floods do not only destroy valuable crops every year but these also damage physical infrastructure such as roads, rails, bridges and human settlements. Millions of people are rendered homeless and are also washed down along with their cattle in the floods. Spread of diseases like cholera, gastro-enteritis, hepatitis and other water-borne diseases spread in the flood-affected areas. However, floods also make a few positive contributions. Every year, floods deposit fertile silt over agricultural fields which is good for the crops. Majuli (Assam), the largest riverine island in the world, is the best example of good paddy crops after the annual floods in Brahmaputra. But these are insignificant benefits in comparison to the grave losses.
The Government of India as well as the state governments are well aware of the menace created by floods every year. Construction of flood protection embankments in the flood-prone areas, construction of dams, afforestation and discouraging major construction activities in the upper reaches of most of the flood-creating rivers, etc. are some steps that need to be taken up on urgent basis. Removal of human encroachment from the river channels and depopulating the flood plains can be the other steps. This is particularly true in western and northern parts of the country which experience flash-floods. Cyclone centres may provide relief in coastal areas which are hit by a storm surge.CGPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for CGPCS Prelims and CGPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by CGPCS Notes are as follows:-