Important Rules on Adjectives
Adjectives are words used to describe or modify nouns or pronouns. The adjectives express physical and other qualities (large, quiet, friendly) and the writer’s opinion or attitude(excellent, beautiful).
Adjectives have many forms.
Adjective are formed when we add a suffix to a noun or verb.
Adding suffix -ful to the noun beauty, makes the adjective beautiful,
Adding the suffix -able to the verb read makes the adjective readable.
Other suffixes often used to create adjectives include -al, -ary, -able and –ible, –ish, -ic, -ical, -less, -like, -ous, -some, and -y.
Some adjectives take the form of participles (verbs ending in -ed or -ing), and
Many are not formed from nouns or verbs but are original—for example, close, deep, slow.
Comparative and superlative adjectives
There are three degrees of adjectives:
- Positive adjectives (e.g., beautiful, fast): express a quality of an object without comparing it to anything else.
- Comparative adjectives (e.g., more beautiful, faster): compare the qualities of two things or groups of things.
- Superlative adjectives (e.g., most beautiful, fastest): express that one thing has a quality to a greater degree than two or more other things or the best among the class.
Forming comparatives and superlatives degree
1.To create a comparative or superlative adjective out of a single-syllable adjective ending in a single vowel followed by a single consonant.
Double the vowel and add the suffix—e.g., fat, fatter, fattest.
2.When the positive adjective ends in a silent – e, remove the –e and add the suffix—e.g., late, later, latest.
3. Adjectives of three or more syllables use more and most instead of -er and –este.g., Beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful.
4. Some adjectives of two syllables also take more and most—e.g., active, more active, most active.
Order of adjective
The categories in the following table can be described as follows:
- Determiners — articles and other limiters.
- Observation or Opinion — post determiners and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, aperfect idiot) and adjectives such as (e.g., beautiful, interesting)
- Size and Shape — e.g., wealthy, large, round
- Age — e.g., young, old, new, ancient
- Color —e.g., red, black, pale
- Origin —e.g., French, American, Canadian
- Material —e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden
- Qualifier — final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, huntingcabin, passenger car, book cover)
- I like that really big old blue antique sculpture that is in your drawing room. [quality – size – age – color – qualifier]
- My neighbour has a beautiful big black dog. [quality – size – color]
- A wonderful old Indian car. [opinion – age – origin]
- A big square blue box. [size – shape – color]
- A disgusting pink plastic bucket. [opinion – color – material]
- My small new red sleeping bag. [size – age – color – purpose]
- I bought a pair of black leather shoes. [color – material]
- They do not form comparative or superlative.
- They are always use in positive degree.
Absolute, impossible, principal, adequate, inevitable, stationary, chief, irrevocable, sufficient, complete main, unanimous, devoid, manifest, unavoidable, entire, minor, unbroken, fatal, paramount, unique, final, perpetual, universal, ideal, preferable, whole, are some example.
- Srinivasan Ramanujan is the most ideal person to me. (Replace the most with an)
- My friend lost the most unique opportunity last year. (Replace the most with an)
- These words are used in comparative degree.
- They are followed by “To” not “Than”.
- Always objective case of pronoun is used.
Senior, Superior, Inferior, Prior, Junior, Preferable, Elder, Prefer
- This book is preferable to that book.
- Only coffee is preferable to he. (Replace he with him)
Some Important Rules:
- If there is “comparatively/relatively” word in the sentence, we use positive degree.
The patient is comparatively better today. (Replace better with well)
- If there is once/twice/thrice….. in the sentence, we use positive degree.
This bag is thrice heavier than that bag. (Replace heavier with as heavy as)
- Equally and Positive degree are not used together in the same sentence. Though they can be used separately
He and his brother are equally intelligent.
He is as intelligent as his brother.
- When we compare two qualities of the same person, we use comparative degree.
Ram is more wise then diligent.
Decide whether you have to use much or many:
- We saw _____ animals at the zoo.
- How _____ oranges did you put in the box?
- There isn’t _____ sugar in my coffee.
- I don’t have ______ friends.
- The old man hasn’t got _____ hair on his head.
- I’ve packed _____ bottles of water.
- I didn’t get _____ sleep last night.
- How _____ fruit do you eat in an average day?
- Can you please buy _______ apples.
- We need _______ water.
- I have _______ money left.
- I take _______ sugar with my coffee.
- We had _______ pints of beer there.
- You have _______ time left.
- There are _______ chairs in the room.
- He only spent _______ dollars there.
- Is there _______ milk left?
- There is _______ juice in the bottle.
- Do you have _______ coffee?
- I don’t have _______ money left.
- She has _______ money.
- Do you know _______ of these singers?
- I don’t know _______ of them.
- I know _______ of them.
- a few
- a little
- a little
- a little
- a few
- a little
- a few
- a few