General Studies-IV

Detailed Notes for CGPCS Mains Paper IV Notes-Science and Environment

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Source of Energy : Conventional and new sources of energy, source of solar energy, causes of origin of energy in the Sun, solar heating devices, solar cooker solar cell, wind energy, biogas, fossil fuels, ideal fuel properties of ideal fuel. Nuclear energy,nuclear Fission, Fusion, chain reaction, nuclear reactor, uses and harms of nuclear energy. General information about CREDA. Light – nature of light reflection of light, laws of reflection, reflection from plane and curved surface, image formation by plane convex and concave mirror, relation between focal length and redius of curvature, determination of focal length of concave miror by single pin method. [Relation between u-v-f [numerical examples. Refraction of light – laws of refraction, refraction by glass slab, critical angle, total internal reflection, use of total internal reflection in daily life. lens [converging and diverging lens. Definition focal length optical centre image formation by lens. Human eye, its defects and remedies. Comparison between photographic camera and human eye. Simple telescope and astronomical telescope, Construction working, uses, ray diagram [no formula derivation]. Electricity and its effects -electric intensity, potential, potential difference, electric curent Ohm’s law. Resistance specfic resistance, influencing factors, combination of resistance and related numerical examples, thermal effect of current it’s use, calculation of power and electrical energy spent. (numerical) precautions observed in electric experiments. Chemical effects of electric current. Primary and secondary cells their properties and drawback. Leclanche cell, dry cell, lead accumulator cell, construction.Magnetic effect of current – Magnetic effete of current, Oersted experiment, electro magnetic induction, electric motor, working principle and use of generator, general studies of alternating current and direct current, electric discharge in gases, discharge tube, cathode rays, X-rays and their properties. Magnetism – Magnet and it’s types artificial magnet, methods of preparing magnets, molecular theory of magnetism, demagnetization,magnetic keepers, magnetic lines of force and their properties. Plotting the lines of force Terrestriel magnetism, magnetic storm. Magnetic meridian geographical meridiaan, relation between VHI and  .
Animal nutrition – Types of nutition, Autotrophic Nutrition, neterotrophic Nutrition, Holozoic, Parasitic, Saphrophytic, ‘symbiotic, Insectivorons. Important terms of nutrition process. Digestion in unicellulor cellanimal [amoeba] and multicellulor animal grass hopper. Human digestive system and digestive process. Photosynthesis, amin steps of the process. light reaction and dark reaction. Factors influencing Photosynthesis. Experiments related to photo synthesis. Respiration – Definition, respiratory organs of animals breathing and respiration,Types of respiration, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration, respiratory system of human being and mechanism of respiration , respiratory quotient [RQ] of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Transport-Transport of mineral and water in plants and animals [in context of human being] Composition and function of blood, structure and working of heart, structure and function of blood vessels [preliminary knowledge], coagulation of blood, blood group, blood transfusion, blood bank, function of lymph system. diseases related to heart.Exceretion – excretion in plants and excretory product. Excretion in animal and excretory organs. Excretion system of man and excretion process [general information] artifical kidney dialysis. Osmoregulation. Diseases related to kidney. Control and coordination – coordination in plants and naimal Phytoharmones. Nervous system of human being. Structure and function of human Brain and spinal cord, reflex action, endocringe glands harmone and their function.Reproduction and growth – type of reproduction Asexual reproduction fission, budding, regeneration, vegetative reproduction, layering, cutting, grafting, Porthenogenesis, sexual reproduction in plants, structure of flower and reproduction process [general information] pollination fertilization. Human reproductive system and reproduction process. Heredity and evolution – heredity and variation. basis of heredity chromosome and DNA [preliminary information] gene. sex determination priliminary knowledge of organic evolution [Oparin’s theory only].