Miscellaneous Facts:

Miscellaneous Facts:


  1. India’s GDP per Capita 622 (US $ PPP). It is 684 US $ for Pakistan.


  1. The top 3 countries with external debt are Brazil (235 billion $), China (193 billion $) & Russia (175 billion $). India is 9th with 112 billion $.


  1. Functional employment occurs when people change from one job to another & there is an interval. This can happen even in a situation of full employment. Structural employment happens when jobs exist for qualified persons but the unemployed do not have the matching qualifications. It also occurs when labour is available, but factors of production are missing. Cyclical unemployment arises out of cycles of recession. Disguised unemployment is when people are employed but their marginal productivity is zero.


  1. The CSO is responsible for estimating the national income. It is assisted by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) which conducts large scale surveys.


  1. The tenth plan has taken the figure of 26% population below poverty line for planning purposes. Out of the total 75% are in rural areas & 25% in urban areas. Orissa (47.5%) has the highest proportion followed by Bihar (42.6%), M.P & Assam.


  1. WPI is a weighted average of indices covering 477 commodities & is a measure of inflation on an economy wide scale. Services do not figure in this. Base year is 1993-94. CPI is computed separately for three groups viz industrial workers (260 commodities), Urban non-manual employees (180 commodities) & agricultural labourers (60 commodities).


  1. The GDP deflator is arrived at by dividing the GDP at current prices by GDP at constant prices in terms of base year prices (1993-94). This indicates how much growth in GDP is due to price rise & how much due to increase in output.


  1. In WTO terminology, subsidies in general are identified by “boxes” which are given the colours of traffic lights: green (permitted), amber (slow down — i.e. be reduced), red (forbidden). For agriculture, all domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the amber box. In order to qualify for the “green box”, a subsidy must not distort trade, or at most cause minimal distortion. It includes amount spent on research, disease control, infrastructure & food security. Blue box subsidies are held to be trade distorting & include direct payment to farmers to limit production & certain government assistance to encourage agriculture & rural development in developing countries.


  1. Tobin tax is the suggested tax (within 0.1% to 0.25%) on all trade of currency across borders intended to put a penalty on short-term speculation in currencies leading to crisis (Eg. Asian Crisis).



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