18th century

Concept of State and Sovereignty

Concept of State and Sovereignty The State is a social contract, a guarantee of social order in exchange for which the citizens agree to reduce their freedom.According to Carré de Malberg, one of France’s leading constitutional scholars, « the state is a community of men attached to a territory with an organization, from which results for the group engaged in relations with its members a supreme power of action and coercion.” More clearly, the state is the result of a population, a territory and a sovereignty. Population  First, the population consists of all the persons living in the territory of ... Read more

Democracy: Direct and Indirect

Democracy: Direct and Indirect Democracy in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as “rule of the majority”. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. Since the time of the ancient Greeks, both the theory and the practice of democracy have undergone profound changes, many of which have concerned the prevailing answers to questions 1 ... Read more

Urban Economy after 1858

Urban Indian economy after 1858 During this period, the Indian economy essentially remained stagnant, growing at the same rate (1.2%) as the population.  India also experienced deindustrialization during this period. Compared to the Mughal era, India during the British colonial era had a lower per-capita income, a large decline in the secondary sector, and lower levels of urbanization. India’s share of the world economy and share of global industrial output declined significantly during British rule. Some of the important features of Indian urban economy during this period are as follows: Deindustrialization In the seventeenth century, India was a relatively urbanised ... Read more

Decline of handicrafts during British period

Decline of handicrafts during British period India’s traditional village economy was characterised by the “blending of agriculture and handicrafts”.  But this internal balance of the village economy had been systematically slaughtered by the British Government. In the process, traditional handicraft industries slipped away, from its pre-eminence and its decline started at the turn of the 18th century and proceeded rapidly almost to the beginning of the 19th century.  This process came to be known as ‘de-industrialisation’—a term opposite to industrialisation. The use of the word ‘de-industrialisation’ could be traced to 1940. Its dictionary meaning is ‘the reduction or destruction of ... Read more

07.11.17 Chhattisgarh (CGPCS) Current Affairs

CHHATTISGARH Guru Baba Ghasidas Gave New Identity To C’garh: Prez   President Ram Nath Kovind on Monday said that 18th century legendary social reformer and truth seeker Guru Baba Ghasidas gave new identity to Chhattisgarh.   He was addressing a gathering after laying the foundation stone of a Community Hall to be built at a cost of Rs 2.25 crore here.   Chief Minister Raman Singh presided over the function.   It was the President’s maiden visit to Chhattisgarh after him assuming office.   Kovind said that Ghiroudhpuri is a religious place of great significance to all Indians as it ... Read more