Bureaucracy

In ancient and medieval India, there was monarchical form of government and the general administration was run by people having near or distant relationship with the King instead of dedicated bureaucracy . But gradually the administration assumed complexities and this required specialist knowledge.The British rulers established a new form of administration analogous to their own … Read more

Hinduism

Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various sects – Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta Hinduism is a complex religion. It is an artificial collection of several traditions that originated in India in the last few millenniums. Since, the Muslim and British rulers and scholars alike were ignorant of the native traditions, they grouped everything under … Read more

Lokpal and Lok Ayukta

Lokpal and Redressel of Citizens grievances:- Introduction: The central theme of democracy is that the ruler is accountable to the rules of all sorts of activities and policies. This has arisen due to the fact that the modern states are populous. Because of this and other reasons the direct democracy of ancient Greek city-states or … Read more

Rural Economy-Agriculture under British Rule

It is often believed that the colonial administration encouraged the commercialization of agriculture that improved the position of peasants in many areas of the Indian colony. From the 1860s onwards, the nature of agricultural production was determined by the demands of the overseas markets for Indian primary products. The items exported in the first half … Read more

Rise of Nationalism

ORIGIN OF NATIONALISM The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution. The political changes resulted in the passing of sovereignty from the hands of an absolute monarch to … Read more

Urban Economy after 1858

Urban Indian economy after 1858 During this period, the Indian economy essentially remained stagnant, growing at the same rate (1.2%) as the population.  India also experienced deindustrialization during this period. Compared to the Mughal era, India during the British colonial era had a lower per-capita income, a large decline in the secondary sector, and lower … Read more

Independence and Partition of India

Mountbatten plan The British government sent a Cabinet Mission to India in March 1946 to negotiate with Indian leaders and agree to the terms of the transfer of power. After difficult negotiations a federal solution was proposed. Despite initial agreement, both sides eventually rejected the plan. An interim government with representatives of all the Indian … Read more

Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement which took place in the month of August has been one of the most popular mass movements during the freedom struggle of India. With the failure of Cripps Mission the political situation had worsened leaving every individual with full of frustration and disgust. People in total frustration eagerly waited for one such … Read more

Revolutionary Movements in British India

 BHAGAT SINGH The name Bhagat Singh has become a synonym of revolution. He was one of the great revolutionaries who made supreme sacrifice for the nation. Thousands of young people sacrificed their lives in the altar of India’s liberation struggle but the name Bhagat Singh has a special place in the history of our independence. … Read more

Gandhian Movements

The role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian Freedom Struggle is considered the most significant as he single-handedly spearheaded the movement for Indian independence. The peaceful and non-violent techniques of Mahatma Gandhi formed the basis of freedom struggle against the British yoke. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869. After he came back to … Read more

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