carbon dioxide

21.02.18 (CGPCS) Chhattisgarh Current Affairs

CHHATTISGARH C’garh second highest after kerala in male-female sex ratio   A NITI Aayog report issued recently has pointed out that Chhattisgarh holds second rank after Kerala in terms of male-female sex-ratio (at the time of birth), Health Department officials informed on Monday. As per the report of NITI aayog, male to female sex-ratio (at the time of birth) in Chhattisgarh state was found to be 1000 to 972 in year 2005-06 in National Family Health Survey-3, which increased to 1000 boys to 977 girls in National Family Health Survey-4 of year 2015-16.   Health Department Officials informed that according ... Read more

Excretion system of man and excretion process

Excretory System Introduction If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. Do you know why this happens? Your body is low on water and trying to reduce the amount of water lost in urine. The amount of water lost in urine is controlled by the kidneys, the main organs of the excretory system. Excretion Excretion is the process of removing wastes and excess ... Read more

Structure and working of heart and blood vessels

Circulatory System The circulatory system can be compared to a system of interconnected, one-way roads that range from superhighways to back alleys. Like a network of roads, the job of the circulatory system is to allow the transport of materials from one place to another. As described in Figure below, the materials carried by the circulatory system include hormones, oxygen, cellular wastes, and nutrients from digested food. Transport of all these materials is necessary to maintain homeostasis of the body. The main components of the circulatory system are the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Each of these components is described ... Read more

Respiratory system of human being and mechanism of respiration

Respiratory System Introduction Red blood cells are like trucks that transport cargo on a highway system. Their cargo is oxygen, and the highways are blood vessels. Where do red blood cells pick up their cargo of oxygen? The answer is the lungs. The lungs are organs of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is the body system that brings air containing oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Respiration The job of the respiratory system is the exchange of gases between the body and the outside air. This process, called respiration, actually consists of two parts. ... Read more

Preparation of Oxygen

Preparation of Oxygen Oxygen is prepared in lab generally in two ways either by the application of heat or no application of heat. Using heat: Oxygen in lab is prepared by heating the mixture of powdered potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide in the ratio 4:1 in a hard glass test tube. The oxygen gas is observed in a gas jar through the downward displacement of water. The reaction involved is given below: 2KClO3−→−−−−−MnO2200−300∘C2KCl+3O2↑ Without heat:  The dry sodium peroxide is taken in a conical flask and the apparatus is fitted as shown in figure. The two necks of woulfe’s bottle ... Read more

Preparation of nitrogen

  Preparation of nitrogen Nitrogen is found in both free and combined states. It occupies 78.07% by volume. Nitrogen can be prepared: By heating copper in air: Firstly, air is passed through lime water and then concentrated sulphuric acid to make the air free from carbon dioxide and moistures respectively. The air contains only nitrogen and oxygen which are passed over the heated copper wire as shown in the figure. Here copper combines with oxygen to make copper oxide and nitrogen gas passes over. This nitrogen can be collected by downward displacement of water. By burning phosphorous in air: Nitrogen ... Read more

laboratory method of preparing alcohol

Laboratory method of preparing alcohol Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides This is a nucleophilic  substitution reaction. R-X + KOHaq → R-OH The method is not satisfactory as olefins are also formed as by-products. However better yields is obtained by using moist Ag2O or aqueous K2CO3. Tertiary butyl halides mainly gives alkene due to dehydrohalogenation. Hydration of Alkenes This is electrophilic addition of H2O to alkenes.   Mechanism of Hydration of alkenes: Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation. Deprotonation to form an alcohol. Except ethyl alcohol no other primary alcohol can be obtained by this method, however ... Read more

Concept of Ecosystem, Structure and Function of Ecosystem

Eco-System-An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and  people. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live in balance and are  capable of reproducing themselves   Components of Ecosystem The components of the ecosystem is categorised into abiotic of non-living and biotic of living components. Both the components of ecosystem and environment are same.   Abiotic Components the inorganic and non-living parts ... Read more

Global Environmental Issues like Green House Effect, Green House Gases and their mitigation.

The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that insulates the Earth . Incoming solar radiations are absorbed and reemitted back from the Earth’s surface as infrared energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere prevent some of this heat from escaping into space, instead reflecting the energy back to further warm the surface. Human activities that produce GHGs (anthropogenic) amplify the greenhouse effect. Anthropogenic GHG emissions are modifying the Earth’s energy balance between incoming solar radiation and the heat released back into space, resulting in climate change. Gases such as CO2 , NO2 , CFCs (chloro fluorocarbons) allow sun ... Read more

Types of pollution and their management; air, water, soil, sound/noise, radioactive and e-waste. Industrial waste and its management. Impact of Solid Waste Management, recycling and reuse,

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications 1. According to the form in which they persist after release into the environment. • Primary pollutants: These persist in the form in which they are added to the environment e.g. DDT, plastic. • Secondary Pollutants: These are formed by interaction among the primary pollutants. For example, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is ... Read more