Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid – CH COOH) Ethanoic acid is the second member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids. In other words, vinegar contains about 5 to 8% acetic acid. We will now describe two methods for the manufacture of ethanoic acid. In the first method, ethanoic acid is obtained as a dilute solution called vinegar.   Manufacture of Ethanoic Acid From Ethanol Ethanoic acid is manufactured in the form of vinegar by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol. Ethanol is oxidized by the oxygen of air in the presence of Acetobacter bacteria to ... Read more

laboratory method of preparing alcohol

Laboratory method of preparing alcohol Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides This is a nucleophilic  substitution reaction. R-X + KOHaq → R-OH The method is not satisfactory as olefins are also formed as by-products. However better yields is obtained by using moist Ag2O or aqueous K2CO3. Tertiary butyl halides mainly gives alkene due to dehydrohalogenation. Hydration of Alkenes This is electrophilic addition of H2O to alkenes.   Mechanism of Hydration of alkenes: Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation. Deprotonation to form an alcohol. Except ethyl alcohol no other primary alcohol can be obtained by this method, however ... Read more


Alloy You might see the word alloy described as a “mixture of metals”, but that’s a little bit misleading because some alloys contain only one metal and it’s mixed in with other substances that are nonmetals (cast iron, for example, is an alloy made of just one metal, iron, mixed with one nonmetal, carbon). The best way to think of an alloy is as a material that’s made up of at least two different chemical elements, one of which is a metal. The other components of an alloy (which are called alloying agents) can be either metals or nonmetals and they’re ... Read more