Sulphuric acid

Preparation of nitrogen

  Preparation of nitrogen Nitrogen is found in both free and combined states. It occupies 78.07% by volume. Nitrogen can be prepared: By heating copper in air: Firstly, air is passed through lime water and then concentrated sulphuric acid to make the air free from carbon dioxide and moistures respectively. The air contains only nitrogen and oxygen which are passed over the heated copper wire as shown in the figure. Here copper combines with oxygen to make copper oxide and nitrogen gas passes over. This nitrogen can be collected by downward displacement of water. By burning phosphorous in air: Nitrogen ... Read more

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting Roasting It is a process wherein the ore is heated either alone or with some other material in excess of air below the fusion point of the ore. Usually, this method is used for sulphide ores. In roasting, definite chemical changes take place to form oxide or chloride of the metal. Ores of metals like zinc, lead, copper and nickel, when roasted in air, are converted to their oxides. Ores of some metals like lead may get partially oxidized and converted to sulphate. In such case, it is called sulphating roasting or partial roasting. Ores of ... Read more

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid – CH COOH) Ethanoic acid is the second member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids. In other words, vinegar contains about 5 to 8% acetic acid. We will now describe two methods for the manufacture of ethanoic acid. In the first method, ethanoic acid is obtained as a dilute solution called vinegar.   Manufacture of Ethanoic Acid From Ethanol Ethanoic acid is manufactured in the form of vinegar by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol. Ethanol is oxidized by the oxygen of air in the presence of Acetobacter bacteria to ... Read more

Acids and bases

Acid An acid is a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution. Examples:- Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl– ions   HCl —> H+ + Cl–   Sulphuric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and SO42- ions   H2SO4 —>2H+ + SO42-   Nitric acid forms H+ and NO3– ions when dissolved in water   HNO3 —> H+ + NO3–   Ethanoic acid,also know as acetic acid, forms H+ and CH3COO– ions in water   CH3COOH —> H+ + CH3COO– Acetone, also known as propanone, doesn’t form any ions in water, so it isn’t an acid. CH3COCH3 just dissolves in water. Methane, CH4, doesn’t form any ions ... Read more

Acid rain

The pH of natural rain is found to be in the range from 5 to 7. The term acid rain is customarily applied to precipitation with a pH below 5. Such low pH values are generally possible only in the presence of large amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Sulphuric acid and nitric acid is considered as the principal agents responsible for acid rain. But the major culprit are human beings. Smokes emitted from the industries is the major source of sulphur dioxide whereas smokes emitted from the motor vehicle is the major source of nitrogen oxide. These emissions mixed with atmospheric ... Read more