the reaction

Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement which took place in the month of August has been one of the most popular mass movements during the freedom struggle of India. With the failure of Cripps Mission the political situation had worsened leaving every individual with full of frustration and disgust. People in total frustration eagerly waited for one such popular movement which could bring a complete end to Imperialism in India. It was at this moment when Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi called for Quit India Movement which turned out to be the most popular mass movement engulfing every section of the ... Read more

The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

The Rate of a Chemical Reaction The rate of a chemical reaction can be defined as the amount of the reaction which occurs in unit time. The rate of a reaction is measured by choosing certain properties of the reaction which will indicate how far the reaction has gone, and whose magnitude can be observed with time without disturbing the reaction. For example, a reaction which shows color change: the rate of such reaction can be measured by observing how the intensity of color formed changes with time. In a similar way, a reaction which involves gases can have its ... Read more

Preparation of Oxygen

Preparation of Oxygen Oxygen is prepared in lab generally in two ways either by the application of heat or no application of heat. Using heat: Oxygen in lab is prepared by heating the mixture of powdered potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide in the ratio 4:1 in a hard glass test tube. The oxygen gas is observed in a gas jar through the downward displacement of water. The reaction involved is given below: 2KClO3−→−−−−−MnO2200−300∘C2KCl+3O2↑ Without heat:  The dry sodium peroxide is taken in a conical flask and the apparatus is fitted as shown in figure. The two necks of woulfe’s bottle ... Read more

Preparation of nitrogen

  Preparation of nitrogen Nitrogen is found in both free and combined states. It occupies 78.07% by volume. Nitrogen can be prepared: By heating copper in air: Firstly, air is passed through lime water and then concentrated sulphuric acid to make the air free from carbon dioxide and moistures respectively. The air contains only nitrogen and oxygen which are passed over the heated copper wire as shown in the figure. Here copper combines with oxygen to make copper oxide and nitrogen gas passes over. This nitrogen can be collected by downward displacement of water. By burning phosphorous in air: Nitrogen ... Read more

Metallurgy of Copper

  Metallurgy of Copper Copper Mining: The commonest ore used in the extraction of copper is Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) also known as Copper Pyrites and other such sulfides. The percentage of copper in the actual ore is too low for direct extraction of copper to be viable. The concentration of ore is required and it is done by the Froth Flotation method. Concentration of Ore: The ore is crushed into a fine powder and a suspension is created in water. To this are added, Collectors and Froth Stabilizers. Collectors (pine oils, fatty acids etc) increase the non-wettability of the metal part of the ore and ... Read more

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid – CH COOH) Ethanoic acid is the second member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids. In other words, vinegar contains about 5 to 8% acetic acid. We will now describe two methods for the manufacture of ethanoic acid. In the first method, ethanoic acid is obtained as a dilute solution called vinegar.   Manufacture of Ethanoic Acid From Ethanol Ethanoic acid is manufactured in the form of vinegar by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol. Ethanol is oxidized by the oxygen of air in the presence of Acetobacter bacteria to ... Read more

laboratory method of preparing alcohol

Laboratory method of preparing alcohol Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides This is a nucleophilic  substitution reaction. R-X + KOHaq → R-OH The method is not satisfactory as olefins are also formed as by-products. However better yields is obtained by using moist Ag2O or aqueous K2CO3. Tertiary butyl halides mainly gives alkene due to dehydrohalogenation. Hydration of Alkenes This is electrophilic addition of H2O to alkenes.   Mechanism of Hydration of alkenes: Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation. Deprotonation to form an alcohol. Except ethyl alcohol no other primary alcohol can be obtained by this method, however ... Read more

Corossion of metals

Corrosion is defined as an attack on a material as a result of chemical, frequently electrochemical reaction, with the surrounding medium. According to this definition, the term corrosion can be applied to all materials, including non-metals. But in practice, the word corrosion is mainly used in conjunction with metallic materials. Why do metals corrode? Apart from gold, platinum and a few others, metals do not occur in the nature in their pure form. They are normally chemically bound to other substances in ores, such as sulphides, oxides, etc. Energy must be expended (e.g. in a blast furnace) to extract the ... Read more

Exothermic and endothermic reactions

Endothermic Reactions Endothermic reactions are those chemical reactions where energy is absorbed by the system from the surroundings mostly in the form of heat. The concept is applied in the physical sciences like chemical reactions where hear is converted to chemical bond energy by way of experiments. Common examples of endothermic reactions are cooking an egg, photosynthesis, and evaporation. This reactions process accounts for the enthalpy change of a reaction only. The overall energy analysis of any reaction is the Gibbs free energy that includes temperature and entropy in addition to the enthalpy. The point to mention here is that ... Read more

Fast and slow chemical reactions

Slow reactions   Chemical reactions that occur very slowly and can take a long time for completion are called slow reactions. Usually covalent compounds are involved in slow reactions. Some reactions can take days, weeks and months to complete; they are called very slow reactions. For example, Milk may take several hours or a day to convert to curd, while it may take even longer for iron to corrode. Rusting of Iron 4Fe + 3O2       ->    2Fe2O3 (Iron) (Oxygen)      (Rust – Iron Oxide) Formation of crude oil by a geochemical reaction and disintegration of radium are other examples of ... Read more