Chhattisgarh: Demographic features and social backwardness of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward classes and Minorities. Literacy and occupation structure

Chhattisgarh: Demographic features and social backwardness of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward classes and Minorities. Literacy and occupation structure


Demographic features of chhatishgarh

As per details from Census 2011, Chhattisgarh has population of 2.56 Crores, an increase from figure of 2.08 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Chhattisgarh as per 2011 census is 25,545,198 of which male and female are 12,832,895 and 12,712,303 respectively. In 2001, total population was 20,833,803 in which males were 10,474,218 while females were 10,359,585.   The total population growth in this decade was 22.61 percent while in previous decade it was 18.06 percent. The population of Chhattisgarh forms 2.11 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 2.03 percent.

Hinduism is majority religion in state of Chhattisgarh with 93.25 % followers. Islam is second most popular religion in state of Chhattisgarh with approximately 2.02 % following it. In Chhattisgarh state, Christinity is followed by 1.92 %, Jainism by 0.24 %, Sikhism by 0.27 % and Buddhism by 0.27 %. Around 1.94 % stated ‘Other Religion’, approximately 0.09 % stated ‘No Particular Religion’.

Out of total population of Chhattisgarh, 23.24% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 5,937,237 of which 3,035,469 are males and while remaining 2,901,768 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 23.24 percent.

Sex Ratio in urban regions of Chhattisgarh was 956 females per 1000 males. For child (0-6) sex ratio the figure for urban region stood at 937 girls per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6 age) living in urban areas of Chhattisgarh were 736,748. Of total population in urban region, 12.41 % were children (0-6).

Average Literacy rate in Chhattisgarh for Urban regions was 84.05 percent in which males were 90.58% literate while female literacy stood at 73.39%. Total literates in urban region of Chhattisgarh were 4,370,966.

social backwardness of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward classes and Minorities

Tribal issues

Most of the resources, particularly the iron-ore, are on Adivasi land, so inevitably the tribal people are being displaced.  They live primarily in the dense forests that cover nearly half of the state, and the trees too are very valuable.  Private corporations such as Jindal Steel, BALCO Aluminium, TATA and ESSAR are already based in Chhattisgarh, and are keen to expand.  They are backed by the central government, which is also involved directly through state-owned companies such as Bilhai Steel Plant, the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and the National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC).

Naxalite is a broad term, often used pejoratively by the Indian government, to refer to the various militant Communist groups active in different parts of India.  The movement began in 1967, in a small village in West Bengal called Naxalbari, when a section of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM), led by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangdal Santhal, initiated an armed struggle to redistribute land to the landless.  This inspired violent uprisings of peasants and tribal people all over the country, supported by a large number of urban intellectuals, but the original movement was largely a failure.  Majumdar wanted a peasant militia to occupy the cities and overthrow the ‘bourgeois government,’ but the Naxalites were too badly organised and corruptible to make this a possibility.

The Naxalites have provided the Adivasis some protection, but ultimately the suffering of the tribal people has only increased.  The Maoist policy was to forcibly recruit one cadre from each Adivasi family, and there were indiscriminate executions of ‘petty bourgeois’ among the villagers.  In 2005 an organisation called ‘Salwa Judum’ was formed under the leadership of Mr Mahendra Karma, the Leader of Opposition in the Chhattisgarh State Legislative Assembly, to counter the episodic attacks of the Maoists.  Salwa Judum means ‘Peace Initiative’, but in reality it is a vigilante organisation that goes around burning villages and killing people.

In 2006, in the Dantewada district, about 50,000 people were forcibly cleared out from some 644 villages, so that the Maoists would lose their popular bases.  This is similar to what the U.S. did in Vietnam, and the violence with which it was achieved is only now coming to light.  Many people were put into roadside camps, where conditions were terrible and there were no education facilities apart from anti-Naxalite indoctrination and military training.  The tragedy is that most tribal people do not share in Maoist ideals, they simply want an end to exploitation, yet there is evidence that the ulterior motive for ground clearing was acquisition for mining companies.

Literacy and occupation structure of chhatishgarh

Chhattisgarh’s literacy rate has witnessed aloft tendency and it was 70.28 % as per Census 2011. The male literacy rate was 80.27 % however the female literacy was 60.24 %.

In 2011, the total number of literates in Chhattisgarh stood at 15,379,922 out of which the males were 8,807,893 however the females were 6,572,029.     Rural literacy rate of Chhattisgarh as per Census 2011 was 65.99%. The total number of rural Literates were 11,008,956. Out of which the females were 4,605,944 and males were 6,403,012.The literacy rate of rural males was 76.98 % and that of rural females was 55.06 %.

Total number of urban literates in Chhattisgarh was 4,370,966 out of which males were 2,404,881 and females were 1,966,085. The urban literacy rate of Chhattisgarh as per 2011 census stood at 84.05%. The literacy rate of urban males was 90.58 % and that of urban females was 77.24 %.

The primary sector, more specifically agriculture and allied activities, forms the base of the State’s economy and provides livelihood to 80 percent of the rural population. The rural economy has a diversified base with agriculture and allied activities as the mainstay, accompanied by a thriving rural non-farm economy.

Although there has been a gradual decline in the share of the primary sector in the NSDP, it still continues to be very significant. The primary sector accounted for about 38 percent of the NSDP in 2001-02, which was roughly the same share as the secondary sector. The secondary sector expanded rapidly from 27.3 percent to 38.5 percent of NSDP, in the 1993- 94 to 2001-2002 period.

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