Feudatory States in Chhattisgarh:—-
The history of the Chhattisgarh region dates back to about the 4th century ce, when it was known as Southern (or South) Kosala. The name Chhattisgarh, meaning “thirty-six forts,” was formerly applied to the territory of the Haihaya dynasty of Ratanpur, founded about 750. Under British rule the present region of Chhattisgarh consisted of a division comprising 14 feudatory princely kingdoms under the Eastern States Agency. Raipur was the headquarters of that division. The Chhattisgarh feudatory states with the Central Provinces in 1905 are:-
Bastar, Kanker, Nandgaon, Khairagarh, Chhuikhadan, Kawardha, Raigarh, Sakti, Sarangarh, Surguja, Udaipur, Jashpur, Korea and Chang Bhakar, each of which had a political agent, besides a number zamindaris.
Bastar state was a princely state in India during the British Raj. It was founded in the early 14th century, supposedly by a brother of the last ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty proper, Prataparudra II. In the early 19th century the state became part of the Central Provinces and Berar under the British Raj, and acceded to the Union of India on 1 January 1948, to become part of the Madhya Pradesh in 1956, and later part of the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh state in 2000. Baster state was situated in the south-eastern corner of the Central Provinces and Berar, bounded north by the Kanker State, south by the Godavari district of Madras States Agency, west by Chanda District, Hyderabad State, and the Godavari river, and east by the Jeypore estate in Orissa.
During the pre-colonial period, Bastar had been incorporated as part of the Mughal and then Maratha Empire. Due to its rough terrain and geographical inaccessibility, however, it always retained a certain level of isolation. When the British finally broke Maratha power in central India in 1818 they subsequently began to enter into a political relationship with Bastar (a former tributary state of the Marathas), and in 1853 the kingdom officially came under the system of British indirect rule. Bastar State was included as part of the Central Provinces administration. The British immediately began to interfere in Bastar’s administration in three ways:
- by implementing new forest policies,
- displacing tribals from their land,
- and heavily interfering in succession to the throne—that is, removing rajas and replacing them with compliant officials.
Titular holders since the Independence of India –
Vijay Chandra Bhanj Deo, Bharat Chandra Bhanj Deo, Kamal Chandra Bhanj Deo
Kanker State was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. Its last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union in 1947. Kanker State was located north of Bastar State and, except for the valley of the Mahanadi in its eastern part. The state had 63,610 inhabitants in 1881 and 103,536 in 1901, more than half of which were Gonds. Kanker town in Kanker District, Chhattisgarh, was the capital of the state and the see of the Raja’s residence. The languages spoken in the state were mainly Chhattisgarhi and Gondi.
The early history of the state is obscure. According to tradition Kanker was founded in the early 2nd century by Raja Satkarni of the Satavahana dynasty.The state was occupied by the Marathas of Nagpur in 1809 and the Raja of Kanker was deprived of its power. In 1818, following the defeat of the Maratha Empire and when the Nagpur kingdom became a British protectorate, local rule was restored by the British authorities on payment of a tribute of Rs 500. The tribute imposed on Kanker State was remitted in 1823. At the time of the British Raj Kanker was one among the 26 feudatory states of the Chhattisgarh States Agency. The state’s accession to the Indian Union was signed by its last ruler Bhanupratap Deo on 15 August 1947.
Nandgaon State also known as Raj Nandgaon, was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. Nandgaon town, in present-day Rajnandgaon District of Chhattisgarh, was the only town of the state and the see of the ruler’s residence. The first ruler Ghasi Das Mahant, was recognized as a feudal chief by the British government in 1865 and was granted a sanad of adoption. Later the British conferred the title of raja on the ruling mahant.
The foundation of the estate of Nandgaon hails back to Prahlad Das, a shawl merchant who in the 18th century had migrated from the Punjab region. When he settled in Ratanpur the area was ruled by the Bhonsle clan of Marathas. Prahlad Das belonged the Bairagi sect whose members practised strict celibacy. Succession was ensured by chosen disciples, Chela, who became Mahants and inherited all the possessions of their predecessor. Prahlad Das became wealthy and after his death his disciple Hari Das was given power and influence by the local Maratha ruler who promoted him as his spiritual advisor. After about a century the Mahants had acquired the four parganas of Nandgaon, Pandadah, Mohgaon and Dongargaon, former feudatory estates of the Raja of Nagpur.
Nandgaon State proper was founded in 1865 when the four feudatory parganas ruled by the Bairagi Mahants were merged and recognized as a princely state. The vow of celibacy of the rulers lasted until 1879, when the seventh Mahant, Ghasi Das, who had married and had a son, was recognized by the British government as an hereditary ruler. Most of the inhabitants of the state were Gonds, Telis, Chamars and Ahirs distributed in 515 small villages in the area.Nandgaon State’s last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948.
The rulers of the princely state of Nandgaon bore the title of ‘Mahant
Khairagarh State was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. Khairagarh town in Rajnandgaon District of Chhattisgarh was the capital of the state and the see of the Raja’s residence.
Khairagarh estate was founded in 1833. In 1898 Khairagarh estate was recognized as a state. Most of the inhabitants of the state were Gonds, Lodhis, Chamars and Ahirs distributed in 497 small villages besides the main town. The rulers were Rajputs of the Nagavamshi dynasty. Khairagarh State’s last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948.
Chhuikhadan (also known as Kondka) was a small princely state of British India, hich later formed part of Chhattisgarh States Agency. The state flag was a purple triangle. he capital of the State was Chhuikhadan.
The chief was a Kunwar and belonged to a Bairagi dynasty known as Mahants. The chiefs of Chhuikhadan were originally under the Bhonsles of Nagpur, the first Chief being Mahant Rup Das in 1750. However, after defeat of Marathas, they were recognized by British as feudatory chiefs in 1865 conferring the title and sanad to Mahant Laxman Das. Mahant Ritu Purna Kishor Das, the last ruling Chief of Chhuikhadan signed the accession of the State to the Union of India on 1 February 1948.
Kawardha State was one of the princely states in the Central Provinces of India during the period of the British Raj. The capital of the state was Khairagarh town, in Kabirdham district of Chhattisgarh state.
Kawardha State was founded in 1751. According to legend its name would have originated in Kabirdham, Kabir’s see, the current name of the district. In former times many Kabir panth adherents resided in the town. The rulers were Gonds of the Raj Gond clan dynasty. Kawardha State’s last ruler, Thakur Lal Dharamraj Singh, signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948, so the state territory was merged into Bombay State, following its splits first assigned to Madhya Pradesh, finally to Chhattisgarh.
Raigarh was a princely state in India at the time of the British Raj. The state was ruled by a Raj Gond dynasty of Gond clan.
Raigarh estate was founded in 1625. In 1911 Raigarh estate was recognized as a state. The Rajas of Raigarh also owned the Estate of Bargarh and so held the title of Chief of Bargarh. Around 1625, the Raja of Sambalpur, created Daryo Singh as Raja of Raigarh.However, under British, it became a princely state only in 1911, during the reign of Raja Bahadur Bhup Deo Singh. Among the notable rulers of State were Deonath Singh, who assisted the British in the Mutiny of 1857. Other rulers were Raja Bahadur Bhup Deo Singh, Raja Chakradhar Singh. Chakradhar Singh is noted for his contributions to Kathak and Hindustani music, especially for founding of Raigarh Gharana. The last ruler was Lalit Kumar Singh, his son succeeded him to the throne of Raigarh and ruled briefly before the Raigarh State was merged into Union of India on December 14, 1947. The princely states of Jashpur, Raigarh, Sakti, Sarangarh and Udaipur were united later to form the Raigarh district in present Chhattisgarh.
Sakti State was one of the princely states of India during the British Raj. It belonged to the Chhattisgarh States Agency, which later became the Eastern States Agency. The capital was Sakti town.The princely state acceded to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948, thus ceasing to exist.
Sakti State’s rulers were Raj Gonds. The year when the state was founded is not known. Legend says that it was founded by two twin brothers who were soldiers of the Raja of Sambalpur. The capital was in Sakti, Janjgir-Champa district, Chhattisgarh. Sakti’s last ruler was Rana Bahadur Leeladhar Singh, born on 3 February 1892, who succeeded as new rana on 4 July 1914. The princely family still exists and is headed by Raja Surender Bahadur Singh, who represented India in its hockey team and was twice a minister for the government of the State of Madhya Pradesh.
Sarangarh was a princely state in India during the British Raj ruled by a Raj Gond dynasty. The emblem of the state was a turtle. Its capital was in Sarangarh town, now in Chhattisgarh state.
According to legend Sarangarh state was founded in the first century AD by Gond ancestors that had migrated from Bhandara. It was originally a dependency of the Ratanpur Kingdom and later became one of the eighteen Garhjat states under Sambalpur State.The Sambalpur kings favoured Sarangarh owing to its readiness to help their kingdom during military campaigns. In 1818 Sarangarh became a British protectorate. Between 1878 and 1889 Sarangarh state was placed under the direct administration of British India owing to economic mismanagement and the infancy of the ruler Bhawani Pratap Singh. On 1 January 1948 Sarangarh State acceded to the Indian Union.
Surguja State, was one of the main princely states of Central India during the period of the British Raj, even though it was not entitled to any gun salute. Formerly it was placed under the Central India Agency, but in 1905 it was transferred to the Eastern States Agency. The state spread over a vast mountainous area inhabited by many different people groups such as the Gond, Bhumij, Oraon, Panika, Korwa, Bhuiya, Kharwar, Munda, Chero, Rajwar, Nagesia and Santal. Its former territory lies in the present-day state of Chhattisgarh and its capital was the town of Ambikapur, now the capital of Surguja district.
Three of the last Asiatic cheetahs recorded from India were shot down in 1947, by Maharaja Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo of Surguja. According to tradition, the rulers of Surguja are descendants of Raksel Raja of Palamau. The state became a British protectorate in 1818 after the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Neighbouring Udaipur State was founded in 1860 as an offshoot of Surguja State. The State was conferred to younger son of Maharaja Amar Singh Deo, to Raja Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo. The Chief resided at Partabpur, the headquarters of a tract which he held as a maintenance grant in Surguja, and was a ruler of considerable ability and force of character. In 1871 he aided in the suppression of a rebellion in the Keonjhar State. He obtained the title of Raja Bahadur as a personal distinction, and was also made a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. In 1820 hereditary title of Maharaja was conferred on ruling chief of Surguja. Surguja was one of the Chota Nagpur States and its rulers were Rajputs of the Raksel dynasty. Maharaja Ramanuj Saran Singh Deo, the last ruler of this princely state signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948.
Udaipur State, was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.The town of Dharamjaigarh was the former state’s capital. After the Independence of India Udaipur State was merged with the princely states of Raigarh, Sakti, Sarangarh and Jashpur to form the Raigarh district of Madhya Pradesh. Now the district of Raigarh is part of Chhattisgarh state.
Udaipur State was founded in 1818 as an offshoot of Surguja State (Surguja). From 1860 Rulers were Rajputs of the Raksel dynasty.Younger son of Maharaja Amar Singh Deo of Surguja State was granted the rule of udaipur state. The First Rajput Raksel ruler Raja Bahadur Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo CSI. The state became a British protectorate in 1818.Udaipur was one of the states of the Eastern States Agency. The last ruler of this princely state signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948. The rulers of Udaipur State bore the title of ‘Raja’.
Jashpur State, was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. The town of Jashpur was the former state’s capital. The rulers were Rajputs of the Chauhan dynasty. After the Independence of India Jashpur State was merged with the princely states of Raigarh, Sakti, Sarangarh and Udaipur to form the Raigarh district of Madhya Pradesh. Now the district of Raigarh is part of Chhattisgarh state.
The area of Jashpur State was ruled by a Dom dynasty at the time of the Mughal Empire. Sujan Rai, a son of the Suryavanshi Raja of Banswada in Rajputana, arrived to the place and saw that the population were not satisfied with their ruler, Raibhan Dom. Sujan led a rebellion, defeated the Dom Raja in battle, and killed him, proclaiming himself king. The rajas of Jashpur accepted the sovereignty of the Bhonsle dynasty of Nagpur State, paying a tribute of 21 buffalos. Before 1818 the Bhonsle placed Jashpur State under the administration of Surguja State. The state became a British protectorate in 1818. Jashpur was one of the states of the Eastern States Agency. The last ruler of this princely state signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948.
Korea State, currently spelled as Koriya, was a princely state of the British Empire of India. After Indian independence in 1947, the ruler of Korea acceded to the Union of India on 1 January 1948, and Koriya was made part of Surguja District of Central Provinces and Berar province. In January 1950, “Central Provinces and Berar” province was renamed Madhya Pradesh state. After November 2000, Korea and the former princely state of Changbhakar became Koriya district of Chhattisgarh state.
Korea State was founded in the 17th century. The ruling family of Koriya were Rajputs of the Chauhan dynasty who came to Koriya from Rajputana in the 13th century and conquered the country. Historically Korea State also seems to have had some indefinite feudal relations with Surguja, but the British government ignored this claim when Koriya was ceded to them by the Bhonsle Raja of Nagpur in 1818. On 24 Dec 1819 the state became a British protectorate. Upon the extinction of the direct line in 1897, a distant collateral branch of the ruling family was recognized as successor by the British Raj.
Changbhakar State, also known as Chang Bhakar, was one of the princely states of British Empire in India in the Chhattisgarh States Agency. Bharatpur was the capital of the princely state.
In 1790 Changbhakar zamindari or estate was carved out of Korea State. After the Anglo-Maratha war in the early nineteenth century, Changbhakar became a tributary state of British India. Changbhakar estate was recognized as a state in 1819 and was placed under the Chota Nagpur Tributary States in 1821. In October 1905, it was transferred and brought under the control of the Commissioner of Chhattisgarh division of Central Provinces. It acceded to the Union of India on 1 January 1948 and was placed under Surguja district of Central Provinces and Berar. Presently it is a Subdivision and a Tehsil of Koriya district of Chhattisgarh state.CGPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for CGPCS Prelims and CGPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by CGPCS Notes are as follows:-