Chhattisgarh is rich in livestock wealth. Livestock sector contributes about 23 percent to the value of agricultural sector output. A majority of the rural households possesses one or another species of livestock. The distribution of livestock holdings is more equitable as compared to land, indicating that the poor have more opportunities in livestock production than in crop production.
The livestock in Chhattisgarh is an integral part of the mixed crop live stock system where crop production meets most of the feed and fodder requirements of livestock and they provide draught power and dung manure for crop production. Such a synergy is considered beneficial for sustainability of crop and live stock production and household food security.
Small–holder farmers dominate the rural sector of Chhattisgarh. About 73 percent of land holdings are less than 2 ha with an area share of 29 percent. For these households crop production is unlikely to be the sole source of livelihood. They sustain from off–farm and non–farm activities like animal husbandry and mostly maintain animals as a regular source of food and cash income. With the increase in per–capita income, the consumption of livestock products increased much faster than food grains over the last decade which has facilitated market trends for livestock and poultry products. Strategic interventions are required to ensure that the small livestock producers gain from the expanding market.
Livestock and Poultry Status
- Chhattisgarh is rich in livestock wealth with1.27 crore animals – cattle population is the highest with 64 percent followed by goats [16 percent] buffaloes [14 percent] and sheep and pigs [6 percent]. Animal in general are smaller in size with poor production potentials coupled with inadequate availability of feed and fodder.
- The distribution of livestock population across the zones shows that Chhattisgarh plains have 56 percent cattle and buffaloes and 50 percent poultry. Pigs are largely concentrated in Baster plateau. Northern hills have the highest goat density while poultry and pig density is higher in Baster plateau.
- Livestock sector engaged only about 0.5 percent of rural work force. The reasons being:-
- The animals are usually left for grazing especially in Rabi season when plenty of land remains uncultivated.
- Huge area under forests also offers avenue of labour free grazing.
- Majority of livestock producers are poor and spend less on animal feed.
- Huge area under forests also offers avenue of labour free grazing.
- Livestock productivity in the State is poor. The average Yield of nondescript cows that account for 55 percent of total milk output is less than 1.0 k.g / day. This is about one half of the country’s average and less than the average yield of goat in Rajasthan. The crossbreed cows yield 3.8 kg. milk per day. Milk yield of buffalo is 2.78kg / day which is far lower than the national average of 4.15 kg. / day.
Following are the policy initiatives undertaken by G.O.I and followed by the states including Chhattisgarh:-
- Operation Flood Programme
- Animal health
- Economic liberalization
- Contract farming
- Fodder bank
Policy Framework for Chhattisgarh
The proposed livestock policy has a pro poor focus and identifies the following thrust areas for government intervention:-
- Improvement in feed-fodder security.
- Extension of animal health services.
- Enhancing capacity of breeding system.
- Improving livestock producer’s access to financial services.
- Linking livestock produce to output market.
- Ensuring ecological and environmental sustainability while promoting modernization of livestock sector through appropriate programmes.
- Special emphases on poor and under privileged sections to ensure income enhancement.
- Strengthening livestock research and its linkage with extension system.
- Promote need based participatory research.
- Integrate traditional and modern approaches to improve livestock productivity.
- Develop – an exhaustive inventory of feed resource available locally.
- Develop thermo stable poultry, pig, sheep and goat viral disease vaccine.
- Development of cost effective polyvalent bluetongue vaccine and anthelementics.
- Encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration among research institutions.
- Follow a bottom-up approach for technology dissemination.
- Promote new models of information dissemination.
- (CARD along with CALPI-SDC-IC had taken up Chhattisgarh Livestock Sector Reform and Policy Development process for preparation of a Pro Poor livestock policy, and as a part of it numerous publications were brought out. ‘Livestock and Poultry Sector in Chhattisgarh–Present Status and Approach for Future Development along with the policy document were the main outcome of the three year process)
- Brijmohan Agrawal is currently the Minister for animal husbandry who ha staken various steps for the development of animal husbandry.
Major activities of this department can be broadly classified under the following heads:
- Veterinary health coverage
- Improved breeding procedure in animals & birds.
- Preservation & Development of Indigenous animal populations.
- Opportunities for employment to the weaker section of the society
Schemes implemented by State government :
- National Livestock Mission – Chhattisgarh
The Mission is designed to cover all the activities required to ensure quantitative and qualitative improvement in livestock production systems and capacity building of all stakeholder. The Mission will cover everything germane to improvement of livestock productivity and support projects and initiatives required for that purpose subject to condition that such initiatives which cannot be funded under other Centrally Sponsored Schemes under the Department.
The NLM intends to achieve the following objectives:
- Sustainable growth and development of livestock sector, including poultry
- Increasing availability of fodder and feed to substantially reduce the demand – supply gap through measures which include more area coverage under quality fodder seeds, technology promotion, extension, post-harvest management and processing in consonance with diverse agro-climatic condition.
- Accelerating production of quality fodder and fodder seeds
- Establishing convergence and synergy among ongoing Plan programmes and stakeholders for sustainable livestock development.
- Promoting applied research in prioritized areas of concern in animal nutrition and livestock production.
- Capacity building of state functionaries and livestock owners through strengthened extension machinery to provide quality extension service to farmers.
- Promoting skill based training and dissemination of technologies for reducing cost of production, and improving production of livestock sector
- Promoting initiatives for conservation and genetic upgradation of indigenous breeds of livestock (except bovines which are being covered under another scheme of the Ministry) in collaboration with farmers / farmers’ groups / cooperatives, etc.
- Encouraging formation of groups of farmers and cooperatives / producers’ companies of small and marginal farmers / livestock owners.
- Promoting innovative pilot projects and mainstreaming of successful pilots relating to livestock sector.
- Providing infrastructure and linkage for marketing, processing and value addition, as forward linkage for the farmer’s enterprises.
- Promoting risk management measures including livestock insurance for farmers.
- Promoting activities to control and prevent animal diseases, environmental pollution, promoting efforts towards food safety and quality, and supply of quality hides and skins through timely recovery of carcasses.
- Encouraging community participation on sustainable practices related to animal husbandry, involvement of community in breed conservation and creation of resource map for the states.
Mission Design –
The mission is organised into the following four Sub-Missions:
- Sub-Mission on Livestock Development
The sub-mission on Livestock Development includes activities to address the concerns for overall development of livestock species including poultry, other than cattle and buffalo, with a holistic approach. Risk Management component of the sub-mission will, however, also cover cattle and buffalo along with other major and minor livestock
. 2. Sub-Mission on Pig Development in North-Eastern Region
There has been persistent demand from the North Eastern States seeking support for all round development of pigs in the region. Therefore, pig development in the North Eastern Region is being taken up as a sub- mission of NLM. The sub-mission will strive to forge synergies of research and development organizations through appropriate interventions, as may be required for holistic development of pigs in the North Eastern Region including genetic improvement, health cover and post harvest operations. (Not applicable to Chhattisgarh)
- Sub-Mission on Feed and Fodder Development
The Sub-Mission is designed to address the problems of scarcity of animal feed and fodder resources, to give a push to the livestock sector making it a competitive enterprise for India, and also to harness its export potential. The sub-mission will especially focus on increasing both production and productivity of fodder and feed through adoption of improved and appropriate technologies best suited to specific agro-climatic region in both arable and non-arable areas.
- Sub-Mission on Skill Development, Technology Transfer and Extension
The extension machinery at field level for livestock activities is not adequately strengthened. As a result, farmers are not able to adopt the technologies developed by research institutions. The adoption of new technologies and practices requires linkages between stakeholders. The sub-mission will provide a platform to develop, adopt or adapt the technologies including frontline field demonstrations in collaboration with farmers, researchers and extension workers, etc. wherever it is not possible to achieve this through existing arrangements.
- 2. National Cattle-Buffalo Breeding Project:-
State Govt. has established Chhattisgarh State Livestock Development Agency (CSLDA) in June 2001 for implementation of National Cattle-Buffalo Breeding Project in Chhattisgarh.
Animal breed improvement work is being done in the State by the Agency has established well equipped Central Semen Station in Anjora Durg and A.I. training center at Mahasamund.
1.Breed improvement and increase in milk production by breeding the cattle and buffalo with good quality frozen semen.
- To strengthen training centers of Vety. Dept. for A.I. Training program.
- Similarity in syllabus in all training centres.
- Availability of frozen semen at A.I. centers for conserved breeds under frozen semen insemination policy.
- Strengthening liquid nitrogen storage and distribution arrangement.
- Strengthening for increasing the storage capacity of frozen semen banks.
- Provide training, materials and tapering grant to private A.I. workers for expansion of self employment and A.I. facilities. The agency is also implementing other schemes by making coordination with animal husbandry dept.
Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD):-
During 10th five year plan, Animal Disease Control Project came in existence under livestock health & disease control (LH&DC) in the year 2002-2003.
Since 2015-16 the funding pattern of the program has been changed from 75:25 to Central Share 60% and State Share 40%.
Objectives are as follows.
- Prevention and vaccination for F.M.D and other important diseases.
- To organize mass vaccination program for infectious disease of cattle like H.S., B.Q., Anthrax, goat diseases like P.P.R.& enterotoxaemia and poultry diseases like ranikhet, Fowl pox, Mareck and Gumboro disease.
- To strengthen animal Disease Investigation laboratoriess.
- In this scheme per year about 894 camps are organized at district level and block level .Along with this annual workshop are also being organized.