British Rule


In ancient and medieval India, there was monarchical form of government and the general administration was run by people having near or distant relationship with the King instead of dedicated bureaucracy . But gradually the administration assumed complexities and this required specialist knowledge.The British rulers established a new form of administration analogous to their own administrative system. The purpose of British administration in India was to establish law and order and to collect revenue. Max Weber described bureaucracy as rational and the most efficient form of organisation. He described an ideal-type of bureaucracy as one characterized by: 1. Officials organised ... Read more


Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various sects – Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta Hinduism is a complex religion. It is an artificial collection of several traditions that originated in India in the last few millenniums. Since, the Muslim and British rulers and scholars alike were ignorant of the native traditions, they grouped everything under the generic name Hinduism to contrast them with their own beliefs and practices. Thus the name, Hinduism, came to say. But a close examination of Hinduism reveals that it has many sects and teacher traditions, with large following, which can be treated as religions themselves. ... Read more

Lokpal and Lok Ayukta

Lokpal and Redressel of Citizens grievances:- Introduction: The central theme of democracy is that the ruler is accountable to the rules of all sorts of activities and policies. This has arisen due to the fact that the modern states are populous. Because of this and other reasons the direct democracy of ancient Greek city-states or of the Rousseauist model is out of question. Direct democracy may be inapplicable. But people’s grievances against the ruler cannot be ignored.   This view has come from the basic idea that the ruler or authority must explain to the people for any failure or ... Read more

Rural Economy-Agriculture under British Rule

It is often believed that the colonial administration encouraged the commercialization of agriculture that improved the position of peasants in many areas of the Indian colony. From the 1860s onwards, the nature of agricultural production was determined by the demands of the overseas markets for Indian primary products. The items exported in the first half of the nineteenth century included cash crops like indigo, opium, cotton and silk. Gradually raw jute, food grains, oil seeds and tea replaced indigo and opium. Raw cotton remained the most in demand item. This expansion in cash crop production was accompanied by the building ... Read more

Rise of Nationalism

ORIGIN OF NATIONALISM The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution. The political changes resulted in the passing of sovereignty from the hands of an absolute monarch to the French citizens, who had the power to constitute the nation and shape its destiny. The watchwords of the French Revolution – Liberty, Equality and Fraternity – inspired the whole world. Many other revolutions like the American Revolution, the Russian Revolution, etc.  also strengthened the ... Read more

Urban Economy after 1858

Urban Indian economy after 1858 During this period, the Indian economy essentially remained stagnant, growing at the same rate (1.2%) as the population.  India also experienced deindustrialization during this period. Compared to the Mughal era, India during the British colonial era had a lower per-capita income, a large decline in the secondary sector, and lower levels of urbanization. India’s share of the world economy and share of global industrial output declined significantly during British rule. Some of the important features of Indian urban economy during this period are as follows: Deindustrialization In the seventeenth century, India was a relatively urbanised ... Read more

Independence and Partition of India

Mountbatten plan The British government sent a Cabinet Mission to India in March 1946 to negotiate with Indian leaders and agree to the terms of the transfer of power. After difficult negotiations a federal solution was proposed. Despite initial agreement, both sides eventually rejected the plan. An interim government with representatives of all the Indian parties was proposed and implemented. However, it soon collapsed through lack of agreement. While the Muslim League consented to join the interim government the Indian National Congress refused. By the end of 1946 communal violence was escalating and the British began to fear that India ... Read more

Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement which took place in the month of August has been one of the most popular mass movements during the freedom struggle of India. With the failure of Cripps Mission the political situation had worsened leaving every individual with full of frustration and disgust. People in total frustration eagerly waited for one such popular movement which could bring a complete end to Imperialism in India. It was at this moment when Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi called for Quit India Movement which turned out to be the most popular mass movement engulfing every section of the ... Read more

Revolutionary Movements in British India

 BHAGAT SINGH The name Bhagat Singh has become a synonym of revolution. He was one of the great revolutionaries who made supreme sacrifice for the nation. Thousands of young people sacrificed their lives in the altar of India’s liberation struggle but the name Bhagat Singh has a special place in the history of our independence. No other young revolutionary of India got much empathy in the minds of the people of India like Bhagat Singh. Still he is an inspiration source for the patriotic people of our motherland. It is important today to study the contributions of Bhagat Singh and ... Read more

Gandhian Movements

The role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian Freedom Struggle is considered the most significant as he single-handedly spearheaded the movement for Indian independence. The peaceful and non-violent techniques of Mahatma Gandhi formed the basis of freedom struggle against the British yoke. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869. After he came back to India from South Africa, where he worked as a barrister, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who led the Congress party, introduced Mahatma Gandhi to the concerns in India and the struggle of the people. The Indian independence movement came to a head between the years 1918 and ... Read more