The doctrine of the separation of powers

The doctrine of the separation of powers finds its roots in the ancient world, where the concepts of governmental functions, and the theories of mixed and balanced government, were evolved. These were essential elements in the development of the doctrine of the separation of powers. Their transmission through medieval writings, to provide the basis of the ideas of constitutionalism In England, enabled the doctrine of the separation of powers to emerge as an alternative, but closely related, formulation of the proper articulation of the parts of government. The power to govern should be distributed between the Parliament, the Executive and ... Read more

Social Stratification – Caste and Class. Social Processes

Caste ,Class & Occupation The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas. They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege. The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. They are followed by the Vaishyas, or merchants, and the fourth are the Shudras, who are usually laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants. At the very bottom are those considered the untouchables. These individuals perform occupations that are considered unclean and polluting, such as scavenging and skinning dead animals ... Read more


CONSITITONAL PROVISIONS FOR SC & ST Constitutional History In the original Constitution, Article 338 provided for a special officer (the Commissioner for SCs and STs) responsible for monitoring the implementation of constitutional and legislative safeguards for SCs and STs and reporting to the president. Seventeen regional offices of the Commissioner were established throughout the country. There was an initiative to replace the Commissioner with a committee in the 48th Amendment to the Constitution, changing Article 338. While the amendment was being debated, the Ministry of Welfare established the first committee for SCs and STs (with the functions of the Commissioner) ... Read more

Basic Knowledge of Computers

Classifications, generations, applications and limitations of digital computers   Computer Classification: By Size and Power Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality. According to functionality, computers are classified as: Analog Computer: A computer that represents numbers by some continuously variable physical quantity, whose variations mimic the properties of some system being modeled. Personal computer: A personal computeris a computer small and low cost. The term”personal computer” is used to describe desktop computers (desktops). Workstation: A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user’s machine (client machine) in contrast to a “server” or “mainframe.” Minicomputer: A minicomputer isn’t ... Read more

Importance of Science & Technology as an engine for national development- Industrial development & Urbanization

Importance of Science & Technology as an engine for national development- Industrial development & Urbanization Professor Freeman J. Dyson, of Institute of Advanced Studies, Princeton, in his book “Infinite in all Directions,” had this to say about Technology: “Technology is a gift of God. After the gift of Life, it is perhaps the greatest of God’s gifts. It is the mother of civilization, of Arts and of Sciences. Technology continues to grow to liberate mankind from the constraints of the past. The most revolutionary aspect of technology is its mobility. Anybody can learn it. It jumps easily over barriers of ... Read more

08.02.18 Chhattisgarh (CGPCS) Current Affairs

CHHATTISGARH 54l quintal food grains allotted under pds: govt   Under State Government’s Public Distribution System (PDS), 20.54 lakh quintals of food grains have been allotted to all 27 districts of the state for February month, officials informed.   The allotment by Food, Civil Supply and Consumer Protection Department includes 18 lakh 28 thousand 644 quintals of rice, 40 thousand 590 quintals of wheat, 57 thousand 031 quintals of sugar, 47 thousand 601 quintals of chickpeas, and 80 thousand 833 quintals of iodine salt. This allotted ration stock will be distributed to ration card holders of all categories, for mid-day ... Read more

18.01.18 Chhattisgarh (CGPCS) Current Affairs

CHHATTISGARH Route survey for bharat net phase-ii soon   The Chhattisgarh Infotech Promotion Society (CHiPS), the nodal agency of Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of Chhattisgarh, will be getting route survey and Right of Way (RoW) clearance done for Bharat Net Phase-II project in the State, officials informed. Notably, Bharat Net is a project initiated by the Central Government and funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) with an aim to provide broadband connectivity to over two lakh fifty thousand (250,000) Gram Panchayats of India. The project aims to provide internet access using Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) and ... Read more


Minerals Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. Almost all chemical elements in the Earth’s crust are associated with at least one mineral. They vary in color, hardness, density, crystal form, crystal size, transparency, composition, location, and abundance. Some minerals are radioactive (uranophane), while others are magnetic (magnetite). Some are uncombined elements, such as gold, silver, sulfur, bismuth, copper and platinum. Certain minerals, such as fluorite (calcium fluoride), glow with a vibrant luminescence after exposure to ultraviolet light. Feldspar (a potassium aluminum silicate) and quartz (silicon dioxide) are the most ... Read more